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Judge Antonio Augusto Cançado Trindade

Judge A. A. Cançado Trindade
International Court of Justice
Former President
Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Biography Biography in PDF

Human Rights
Introduction
The Human Person and International Justice
Video    (30 minutes)

L'humanisation du droit international
Video    (36 minutes)

Judicial Remedies
The Access of Individuals to International Justice
The consolidation of the right of individual petition (granting locus standi in judicio and jus standi to petitioners) before international human rights tribunals, and the resulting case-law, constitute one of the most remarkable achievements of the evolution of international law in the last six decades (1948-2008). This shift points to a paradigm change resulting from international law’s current historical process of humanization.

Original Lecture
English    (43 minutes)

Lecture with simultaneous interpretation
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La expansión de la jurisdicción internacional y su importancia para la realización de la justicia
Video   (46 minutes)


The Human Person and International Justice
The human person has recovered her place in the new jus gentium of this beginning of the XXIst century, - as originally heralded and propounded by the founding fathers of the law of nations, - in a true juridical revolution in the last half-century, moved by the universal juridical conscience (as the ultimate material source of International Law), which has contributed to the international rule of law and the general acknowledgment of peremptory norms of International Law.

(Forthcoming)

2008 W. Friedmann Award,
Recording courtesy of Columbia Journal of Transnational Law


Human Rights
Introduction
The Human Person and International Justice
A. Legal Instruments

Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, Vienna, 24 April 1963, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 596, p. 261.

American Convention on Human Rights, San Jose, 22 November 1969.

B. Jurisprudence

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Loayza-Tamayo v. Peru, Judgment of 17 September 1997, Series C No. 33.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Loayza-Tamayo v. Peru, Judgment of 27 November 1998, Series C No. 42.

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Prosecutor v. Anto Furundžija, Judgment of 10 December 1998, Trial Chamber, IT-95-17/1-T.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, The Right to Information on Consular Assistance in the Framework of the Guarantees of the due Process of Law, Advisory Opinion OC-16/99 of 1 October 1999, Series A No.16 (1999).

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the “Street Children” (Villagrán-Morales et al.) v. Guatemala, Judgment of 19 November 1999, Series C No. 63.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of “The Last Temptation of Christ” (Olmedo-Bustos et al.) v. Chile, Judgment of 5 February 2001, Series C No. 73.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Barrios Altos v. Peru, Judgment of 14 March 2001, Series C No. 75.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the “Street Children” (Villagrán-Morales et al.) v. Guatemala, Judgment of 26 May 2001, Series C No. 77.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Barrios Altos v. Peru, Judgment of 30 November 2001, Series C No. 87.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Cantoral Benavides v. Peru, Judgment of 3 December 2001, Series C No. 88.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Juridical Condition and Human Rights of the Child, Advisory Opinion OC-17/02 of 28 August 2002, Series A No.17 (2002).

Inter-American Court of Human Rights,Juridical Condition and Rights of the Undocumented Migrants, Advisory Opinion OC-18/03 of 17 September 2003, Series A No.18 (2003).

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Myrna Mack Chang v. Guatemala, Judgment of 25 November 2003, Series C No. 101.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the Plan de Sánchez Massacre v. Guatemala, Judgment of 29 April 2004, Series C No. 105.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Molina Theissen v. Guatemala, Judgment of 3 July 2004, Series C No. 108.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the 19 Merchants v. Colombia, Judgment of 5 July 2004, Series C No. 109.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the Gómez Paquiyauri Brothers v. Peru, Judgment of 8 July 2004, Series C No. 110.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Tibi v. Ecuador, Judgment of 7 September 2004, Series C No. 114.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the Moiwana Community v. Suriname, Judgment of 15 June 2005, Series C No. 124.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the "Mapiripán Massacre" v. Colombia, Judgment of 15 September 2005, Series C No. 134.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the Pueblo Bello Massacre v. Colombia, Judgment of 13 January 2006, Series C No. 140.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the Ituango Massacres v. Colombia, Judgment of 1 July 2006, Series C No. 148.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Montero Aranguren et al. (Detention Center of Catia) v. Venezuela, Judgment of 5 July 2006, Series C No. 150.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Goiburú et al. v. Paraguay, Judgment of 22 September 2006, Series C No. 153.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of the Miguel Castro Castro Prison v. Peru, Judgment of 25 November 2006, Series C No. 160.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of La Cantuta v. Peru, Judgment of 29 November 2006, Series C No. 162.

C. Doctrine

A. A. Cançado Trindade, “The Human Person and International Justice”, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, vol. 47, issue 1, 2008, pp. 16-30.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, El Acceso Directo del Individuo a los Tribunales Internacionales de Derechos Humanos, Universidad de Deusto, Bilbao, 2001, pp. 9-104.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, “The Right of Access to Justice in the Inter-American System of Human Rights Protection”, Italian Yearbook of International Law, vol. 17, 2007, pp. 7-24.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, The Access of Individuals to International Justice, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011, pp. 1-236.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, El Derecho de Acceso a la Justicia en Su Amplia Dimensión, 2nd ed., Ed. Librotecnia, Santiago de Chile, 2012, pp. 79-574.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, International Law for Humankind: Towards a New Jus Gentium, 2nd ed., Nijhoff/The Hague Academy of International Law, The Hague, 2013, pp. 1-726.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, “A Century of International Justice and Prospects for the Future” in A Century of International Justice / Retrospective d’un siècle de justice internationale et perspectives d’avenir, (co-eds. A. A. Cançado Trindade, and D. Spielmann), Wolf Publs., Oisterwijk, 2013, pp. 1-28.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, “El Difícil Camino del Acceso de la Persona Humana a la Justicia en el Contencioso Interestatal ante la Corte Internacional de Justica,” Anuario Hispano-Luso-Americano de Derecho International, vol. 21, 2013-2014, pp. 173-213.

A. Gentili, De Iure Belli Libri Tres. 1612 ed. [Three Books on the Law of War], vol. 2, The Clarendon Press, Oxford; Humphrey Milford, London, 1933.

H. Grotius, De Jure Belli Ac Pacis Libri Tres [On the Law of War and Peace: Three Books], Carnegie Institution of Washington, vol. 2, Washington, D.C., 1913, vol. 2, trans. The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1925.

S. Pufendorf, Droit de la Nature et des Gens ou Système General des Principes les Plus Importants de la Morale, de la Jurisprudence, et de la Politique, 5eme édition,Chez la veuve de Pierre de Coup, Amsterdam, 1734.

F. Suarez, Tractatus de Legibus, ac Deo Legislatore in Decem Libros Distributus, Utriusque fori Hominibus non Minus Utilis, Quam Necessarius, vol. 1, Sumptibus J. Dunmore, T. Dring, B. Tooke & T. Sawbridge, London, 1679.

F. de Victoria, J. Bate (Translator), De Indis et de Ivre Belli Reflectiones [Reflections in Moral Theology of the Very Celebrated Spanish Theologian, Franciscus de Victoria], vol. 1, The Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, 1917.

C. Wolff, Jus Gentium Methodo Scientifica Pertractatum [Law of Nations Treated According to a Scientific Method], vol. 2, The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1934.


L’humanisation du droit international
A. Instruments juridiques

Convention de Genève pour l’amélioration du sort des blessés et des malades dans les forces armées en campagne, Genève, 12 août 1949, Nations Unies, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, p. 31.

Convention de Genève pour l’amélioration du sort des blessés et des malades et des naufragés des forces armées sur mer, Genève, 12 août 1949, Nations Unies, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, p. 85.

Convention de Genève relative au traitement des prisonniers de guerre, Genève, 12 août 1949, Nations Unies, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, p. 135.

Convention de Genève relative à la protection des personnes civiles en temps de guerre, Genève, 12 août 1949, Nations Unies, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, p. 287.

Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant, New York, 20 novembre 1989, Nations Unies, Recueil des Traités, vol. 1577, p. 3.

Convention de Vienne sur les relations consulaires, Vienne, 24 avril 1963, Nations Unies, Recueil des Traités, vol. 596, p. 261.

B. Jurisprudence

Cour interaméricaine des droits de l’homme, Castillo Petruzzi et al. c. Pérou, arrêt du 4 septembre 1998, Séries C, n°. 41 (1998) (disponible seulement en anglais et espagnol).

Cour interaméricaine des droits de l’homme, Le droit à l’information sur l’assistance consulaire dans le cadre des garanties de la procédure judiciaire, avis consultatif OC-16/99 du 1 octobre 1999, Séries A, n° 16 (1999) (disponible seulement en anglais et espagnol).

Cour interaméricaine des droits de l’homme, Affaire des «enfants de la rue » (Villagrán Morales et al.) c. Guatemala, arrêt du 26 mai 2001, Séries C, n°. 77 (2001) (disponible seulement en anglais et espagnol), et Opinion concurrente du Mr. Le Juge A.A. Cançado Trindade (disponible seulement en espagnol).

Cour interaméricaine des droits de l’homme, Condition juridique et droits de l’enfant, avis consultatif OC-17/02 du 28 aout 2002, Séries A, n° 17 (2002) (disponible seulement en anglais et espagnol).

Cour interaméricaine des droits de l’homme, Condition juridique et droits des migrants sans papiers, avis consultatif OC-18/03 du 17 septembre 2003, Séries A, n° 18 (2003) (disponible seulement en anglais, espagnol et portugaise).

C. Doctrine

A. Gentili, De Iure Belli Libri Tres. 1612 ed. [Three Books on the Law of War], vol. 2, The Clarendon Press, Oxford; Humphrey Milford, London, 1933.

H. Grotius, De Jure Belli Ac Pacis Libri Tres [On the Law of War and Peace: Three Books], Carnegie Institution of Washington, vol. 2, Washington, D.C., 1913, vol. 2, trans. The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1925.

S. Pufendorf, Droit de la Nature et des Gens ou Système General des Principes les Plus Importants de la Morale, de la Jurisprudence, et de la Politique, 5eme édition,Chez la veuve de Pierre de Coup, Amsterdam, 1734.

F. Suarez, Tractatus de Legibus, ac Deo Legislatore in Decem Libros Distributus, Utriusque fori Hominibus non Minus Utilis, Quam Necessarius, vol. 1, Sumptibus J. Dunmore, T. Dring, B. Tooke & T. Sawbridge, London, 1679.

F. de Victoria, J. Bate (Translator), De Indis et de Ivre Belli Reflectiones [Reflections in Moral Theology of the Very Celebrated Spanish Theologian, Franciscus de Victoria], vol. 1, The Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, 1917.

C. Wolff, Jus Gentium Methodo Scientifica Pertractatum [Law of Nations Treated According to a Scientific Method], vol. 2, The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1934.


Judicial Remedies
The Access of Individuals to International Justice
A. Legal Instruments

Revised Convention for Rhine Navigation, Mannheim, 17 October 1868.

Convention for the Establishment of a Central American Court of Justice, Washington, 20 December 1907.

Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice, San Francisco, 26 June 1945.

Universal Declaration on Human Rights, Paris, 10 December 1948

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Rome, 4 November 1950, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 213, p. 222.

American Convention on Human Rights, San José, 22 November 1969, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1144, p. 124.

Protocol No. 9 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950, Rome, 6 November 1990, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1934, p. 295.

Protocol No. 11 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 4 November 1950, restructuring the control machinery established thereby, Strasbourg, 11 May 1994, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2061, p. 12.

B. Jurisprudence
C. Doctrine

A. A. Cançado Trindade, The Application of the Rule of Exhaustion of Local Remedies in International Law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 1-445.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, “The Procedural Capacity of the Individual as Subject of International Human Rights Law: Recent Developments”, in: K. Vasak, Amicorum Liber - Les droits de l'homme à l'aube du XXIe. siècle, Bruylant, Brussels, 1999, pp. 521-544.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, El Acceso Directo del Individuo a los Tribunales Internacionales de Derechos Humanos, University of Deusto, Bilbao, 2001, pp. 9-104.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, “Le nouveau Règlement de la Cour Interaméricaine des Droits de l'Homme: quelques réflexions sur la condition de l'individu comme sujet du Droit International”, in: Libertés, justice, tolérance - Mélanges en hommage au Doyen G. Cohen-Jonathan, vol. I, Bruylant, Brussels, 2004, pp. 351-365.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, El Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos en el Siglo XXI, 2nd edition, Editorial Jurídica de Chile, Santiago, 2006, ch. VII, pp. 319-376.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, A Humanização do Direito Internacional, Edit. Del Rey, Belo Horizonte, 2006, ch. VI-VII, pp. 129-156.

A. A. Cançado Trindade, International Law for Humankind: Towards a New Jus Gentium, 2nd, revised edition, 2013.



La expansión de la jurisdicción internacional y su importancia para la realización de la justicia
A. Instrumentos jurídicos

Carta de las Naciones Unidas y Estatuto de la Corte Internacional de Justicia, San Francisco, 26 de junio de 1945.

Convención contra la tortura y otros tratos o penas crueles, inhumanos o degradantes, Nueva York, 10 de diciembre de 1984, Naciones Unidas, Treaty Series, vol. 1465, p. 85.

Estatuto del Tribunal Penal Internacional para Rwanda, Resolución 955 del Consejo de Seguridad, de 8 de noviembre 1994.

Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional, Roma, 17 de julio de 1998, Naciones Unidas, Treaty Series, vol. 2187, p. 3.

Estatuto de la Corte Special para Sierra Leone, Freetown, 16 de enero de 2002.

B. Jurisprudencia

Corte Internacional de Justicia, Cuestiones relativas a la Obligación de Procesar o Extraditar (Bélgica contra el Senegal), opinión disidente del Magistrado Cançado Trindade (versión completa disponible únicamente en inglés o francés).

Véase también Resúmenes de los fallos, opiniones consultivas y providencias de la Corte Internacional de Justicia.

C. Documentos

Resolución de la Asamblea General 60/1 de 16 de septiembre de 2005 (Documento Final de la Cumbre Mundial 2005).

Informe del Secretario General, El estado de derecho en los planos nacional e internacional: información y observaciones recibidas de los gobiernos, (A/62/121 de 11 de julio de 2007).

Adición al informe del Secretario General, El estado de derecho en los planos nacional e internacional: información y observaciones recibidas de los gobiernos, documento (A/62/121.Add.1 de 6 de septiembre de 2007).

D. Doctrina

P. Calamandrei, “Giustizia e Politica”, Opere Giuridiche, editado por Mauro Cappelletti,  Morano Editore, Nápoles, 1965.


The Human Person and International Justice
Recommended Reading

A. A. Cançado Trindade, "International Law for Humankind: Towards a New Jus Gentium - General Course on Public International Law - Part II", 317 Recueil des Cours de l'Académie de Droit International de la Haye (2005), ch. XXV, pp. 217-245

A. A. Cançado Trindade, "Co-Existence and Co-Ordination of Mechanisms of International Protection of Human Rights (At Global and Regional Levels)", 202 Recueil des Cours de l'Académie de Droit International de La Haye (1987) pp. 1- 435

A. A. Cançado Trindade, Tratado de Direito Internacional dos Direitos Humanos, vol. III, Porto Alegre/Brazil, S.A. Fabris Ed., 2003, ch. XX, pp. 405-537

A. A. Cançado Trindade, "The Relevance of International Adjudication Revisited: Reflections on the Need and Quest for International Compulsory Jurisdiction", in Towards World Constitutionalism - Issues in the Legal Ordering of the World Community (eds. R.St.J. Macdonald and D.M. Johnston), Leiden, Nijhoff, 2005, pp. 515-542

A. A. Cançado Trindade, "The Future of the International Protection of Human Rights, in B. Boutros-Ghali Amicorum Discipulorumque Liber - Paix, Développement, Démocratie, vol. II, Brussels, Bruylant, 1998, pp. 961-986

A. A. Cançado Trindade, "The Emancipation of the Individual from His Own State - The Historical Recovery of the Human Person as Subject of the Law of Nations", in Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law - Liber Amicorum L. Wildhaber (eds. S. Breitenmoser et alii), Zürich/Baden-Baden, Dike/Nomos, 2007, pp. 151-171

A. Cançado Trindade, "The International Law of Human Rights at the Dawn of the XXIst Century, in Cursos Euromediterráneos Bancaja de Derecho Internacional, vol. III (1999), Castellón/Spain, Aranzadi Ed., 2000, pp. 145-221