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Dr. Makane Möise Mbengue

Dr. Makane Moïse Mbengue
Associate Professor of
International Law
Faculty of Law
University of Geneva

Biography Biography in PDF

International Economic Law
World Trade Organization (WTO)
The Principle of Non-Discrimination in International Trade Law (GATT perspective)
Non-discrimination is a key concept in WTO law, not to say is both central and essential to assuring the success of the multilateral trading system. The principle of non-discrimination rests on two pillars: the most-favored nation (MFN) treatment obligation and the national treatment obligation. The principle of non-discrimination is so fundamental for the balance of rights and obligations within the WTO that it continues to induce legal effects even when subject to certain exceptions.

Video | Audio
(32 minutes)

National Treatment under WTO Law (GATT perspective)
The National Treatment clause under GATT Article III purports at preventing trade protectionism. It is one of the main legal expressions of the principle of non-discrimination in international trade relations. The mechanism and operation of the National Treatment clause are complex. The concept of ‘like products’ is at the heart of the different tests induced through the National Treatment clause.

Video | Audio
(57 minutes)

Introduction au droit de l'OMC

Partie I
L’histoire du GATT/de l’OMC

Video | Audio
(53 minutes)

Partie II
L’OMC comme organisation internationale

Video | Audio
(30 minutes)

Partie III
La structure juridique de l’OMC

Video | Audio
(12 minutes)


Partie IV
Les caractéristiques du système de règlement des différends de l’OMC

Video | Audio
(29 minutes)

Partie V
Les principes fondamentaux du système GATT/OMC

Video | Audio
(59 minutes)
International Economic Law
World Trade Organization (WTO)
The Principle of Non-Discrimination in International Trade Law (GATT perspective)
Outline Outline in PDF
A. Legal Instruments
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Geneva, 30 October 1947, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 55, p. 187.

Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization (with final act, annexes and protocol), Marrakesh, 15 April 1994, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1867, p. 3.
B. Jurisprudence
C. Documents
Report adopted by the Contracting Parties of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, “Belgian Family Allowances” (G/32 - 1S/59, 7 November 1952).

Report adopted by the Working Party of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, “Border Tax Adjustment” (L/3464, 2 December 1970).

Decision adopted by the Contracting Parties of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, “Differential and more favourable treatment reciprocity and fuller participation of developing countries” (L/4903, 28 November 1979).


National Treatment under WTO Law (GATT perspective)
Outline Outline in PDF
A. Legal Instruments
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Geneva, 30 October 1947, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 55, p. 187.

Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization (with final act, annexes and protocol), Marrakesh, 15 April 1994, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1867, p. 3.
B. Jurisprudence
C. Documents
Border Tax Adjustments, “Report of the Working Party adopted on 2 December 1970” (L/3464).


Introduction au droit de l'OMC

A. Instruments Juridiques

Accord relatif à la Banque internationale pour la reconstruction et le développement (Accords de Bretton Wood), Washington,  27 décembre 1944, vol. 2, p. 41.

Accord général sur les tarifs douaniers et le commerce, Genève, 30 octobre 1947, Nations Unies, Recueil des Traités, vol. 55, p. 189.

Charte de la Havane, La Havane, 21 novembre 1947 au 24 mars 1948, E/CONF.2/78.

Accord de Marrakech  instituant l'Organisation mondiale du commerce,  Marrakech, 15 avril 1994, Nations Unies, Recueil des Traités, vol. 1867, p. 165.

Accord général sur les tarifs douaniers et le commerce, Marrakech, 15 Avril 1994, Nations Unies, Recueil des Traités, vol. 1867, p. 192.

B. Jurisprudence

Organisation mondiale du commerce,États-Unis — Prohibition à l'importation de certaines crevettes et de certains produits à base de crevettes, 12 octobre 1998, WT/DS58/AB/R.

Organisation mondiale du commerce,Japon — Taxes sur les boissons alcooliques, 4 octobre 1996, WT/DS8/AB/R, WT/DS10/AB/R, WT/DS11/AB/R.

Organisation mondiale du commerce,Corée — Mesures affectant les importations de viande de bœuf fraîche, réfrigérée et congelée, 11 décembre 2000, WT/DS161/AB/R, WT/DS169/AB/R.

Organisation mondiale du commerce,Communautés européennes — Conditions d’octroi de préférences tarifaires aux pays en développement, 7 avril 2004, WT/DS246/AB/R.

C. Document