Sources of Law
Obligations Erga Omnes in International Law
A. Legal Instruments
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Rome, 4 November 1950, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 213, p. 221.
American Convention on Human Rights, San José, 22 November 1969, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1144, p. 123.
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Nairobi, 27 June 1981, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1520, p. 217.
International Law Commission, Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, 2001.
Arbitral Tribunal, Island of Palmas Case (Netherlands, United States of America), Award of 4 April 1928, Reports of International Arbitral Awards, vol. II, p. 829.
International Court of Justice, South West Africa, Second Phase, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1966, p. 6.
International Court of Justice, Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Limited, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1970, p. 3.
International Court of Justice, Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal), Provisional Measures, Order of 28 May 2009, Dissenting Opinion of Judge Cançado Trindade, I.C.J. Reports 2009, p. 190, para. 71.
International Court of Justice, Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2012, p. 422.
International Court of Justice, Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia v. Japan: New Zealand intervening), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2014, p. 226.
Resolution of the Institut de Droit International (Fifth Commission) on Obligations and rights erga omnes in international law in its Krakow Session (2005).
I. Brownlie, “To What Extent Are the Traditional Categories of Lex Lata and Lex Ferenda Still Viable?”, in A. Cassese & J. Weiler (eds.), Change and Stability in International Law-Making, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 1988, pp. 66-101.
M. Shahabuddeen, Precedent in the World Court, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997, p. 159.