Codification Division Publications: United Nations Juridical Yearbook Codification Division Publications: United Nations Juridical Yearbook

Last update: January 24, 2018

1990

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Part One. Legal status of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

Chapter I. Legislative texts concerning the legal status of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
  Peru  
    (a) Tax Code — General Principles 3
    (b) Amendments to rules concerning the non-recurrent Extraordinary Tax levied on the amount of capital assets insured 3
    (c) Adoption of rules concerning the new rates of the Selective Tax on Consumption and other national rates 4
    (d) Personal Assets Tax Act 4
    (e) Amendments to some aspects of the Consumption Tax system 4
Chapter II. Treaty provisions concerning the legal status of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
A. Treaty provisions concerning the legal status of the United Nations  
  1. Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. Approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 13 February 1946 6
  2. Agreements related to installations and meetings  
    (a) Agreement between the United Nations and Ethiopia concerning additional land for the Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa. Signed at Addis Ababa on 18 January 1990 6
    (b) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Argentina concerning the Latin American Seminar and Regional Non-governmental Organization Symposium on the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, to be held at Buenos Aires from 5 to 9 February 1990. New York, 24, 25 and 26 January 1990 7
    (c) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Guatemala concerning the status, privileges and immunities of the United Nations Observer Group in Central America in Guatemala. New York, 10 November 1989, and Guatemala City, 26 January 1990 10
    (d) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of El Salvador concerning the status, privileges and immunities of the United Nations Observer Group in Central America in El Salvador. New York, 10 November 1989, and San Salvador, 16 May 1990 12
    (e) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Honduras concerning the status, privileges and immunities of the United Nations Observer Group in Central America in Honduras (with memorandum of understanding). New York, 10 November 1989, and Tegucigalpa, 5 July 1990 13
    (f) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania concerning the holding of a Workshop on Conflict Resolution, Crisis Prevention and Management and Confidence-building among African States. New York, 25 January and 7 February 1990 14
    (g) Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Cuba regarding the arrangements for the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, to be held at Havana from 27 August to 7 September 1990. Signed at Vienna on 4 April 1990 15
    (h) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Finland on the Meeting of Experts on Alternative Ways to Mark the End of the United Nations Decade of Disabled Persons, to be held at Jarvenpaa-Talo, Finland, from 7 to 11 May 1990. Vienna, 10 April 1990 17
    (i) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Vanuatu concerning the arrangements for the Asia Pacific Regional Seminar in Observance of the Thirtieth Anniversary of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, to be organized by the Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples at Port Vila, Vanuatu, from 9 to 11 May 1990. New York, 27 April 1990 19
    (j) Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Thailand regarding arrangements for the Sixteenth Session of the World Food Council of the United Nations, to be held at Bangkok from 21 to 24 May 1990. Signed at Rome on 4 May 1990 21
    (k) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Sweden on the United Nations Training Course on Remote Sensing for Educators, to be held at Stockholm and Kiruna from 14 May to 15 June 1990. New York, 10 and 22 May 1990 22
    (l) Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Togo concerning the arrangements for the seminar for French-speaking African countries on the relationships between the status of women and demographic phenomena. Signed at Vienna on 30 March and at Lome on 23 May 1990 24
    (m) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning the arrangements for the International Conference on "Energy in Climate and Development: Policy Issues and Technological Options". New York, 20 March, 23 May and 24 May 1990 25
    (n) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Spain concerning arrangements for the International Symposium on the Integration of Young People in Society, to be held in Spain in June 1990. Vienna, 9 May and 28 May 1990 28
    (o) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Bulgaria concerning the holding of the Seminar on Confidence-building Measures in the Maritime Environment. New York, 5 and 11 June 1990 29
    (p) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Sweden concerning the United Nations European Regional Seminar on the Question of Palestine. New York, 9 April and 18 June 1990 31
    (q) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Barbados concerning the arrangements for the Caribbean Regional Seminar in Observance of the Thirtieth Anniversary of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. New York, 30 May 1990, and St. Michael, Barbados, 12 June 1990 33
    (r) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Finland concerning the arrangements for the Meeting of Experts, "The social impact of the critical economic environment on developing countries: strategies for social development cooperation". Vienna, 11 and 17 July 1990 34
    (s) Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of France concerning the Second United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, to be held in Paris from 3 to 14 September 1990. Signed at Geneva on 9 August 1990 36
    (t) Agreement between the United Nations (Offices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) and the Government of Nicaragua. Signed at Managua on 1 November 1990 37
  3. Agreements relating to the United Nations Development Programme  
      Standard Basic Assistance Agreement between the recipient Government and the United Nations Development Programme 42
      Agreements between the United Nations Development Programme and the Governments of Sri Lanka and Poland. Signed respectively at Colombo on 20 March 1990 and at Warsaw and New York on 30 July 1990 42
B. Treaty provisions concerning the legal status of intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations  
  1. Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies. Approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 21 November 1947 44
  2. International Labour Organisation  
    (a) Agreement between the International Labour Organisation and the Government of Zimbabwe concerning the establishment of a subregional office at Harare. Signed at Geneva on 8 February 1990 44
    (b) Agreement between the International Labour Organisation and the Government of Cote d'lvoire concerning the Organisation's Regional Office for Africa. Signed at Geneva on 26 June 1989 46
  3. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations  
    (a) Agreements based on the standard "Memorandum of Responsibilities" in respect of FAO sessions 49
    (b) Agreements based on the standard "Memorandum of Responsibilities" in respect of seminars, workshops, training courses or related study tours 50
  4. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 50
      Agreements relating to conferences, seminars and other meetings  
  5. International Maritime Organization  
      Agreement between the International Maritime Organization and the Government of Malta concerning the Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea. Signed at Valletta on 27 April 1990 51
  6. United Nations Industrial Development Organization  
    (a) Basic Cooperation Agreements  
      (i) Standard Basic Cooperation Agreement between UNIDO and Member States Receiving Assistance from UNIDO 52
      (ii) Basic cooperation agreements between the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the Governments of Burundi and Togo. Signed at Vienna on 25 June and 26 November 1990 respectively 54
    (b) Agreements for the extension of UNIDO Investment Promotion Services 54
    (c) Agreements for the extension of the Basic Terms and Conditions governing UNIDO projects for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 54
  7. International Atomic Energy Agency  
    (a) Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Approved by the Board of Governors of the Agency on 1 July 1959 54
    (b) Incorporation of provisions of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency by reference in other agreements with States that are not or were not at the time parties to the Agreement 54

Part Two. Legal activities of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

Chapter III. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
A. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations  
  1. Disarmament and related matters 59
  2. Other political and security questions 67
  3. Environmental, economic, social, humanitarian and cultural questions 70
  4. Law of the Sea 137
  5. International Court of Justice 139
  6. International Law Commission 154
  7. United Nations Commission on International Trade Law 156
  8. Legal questions dealt with by the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly and by ad hoc legal bodies 158
  9. Respect for the privileges and immunities of officials of the United Nations and the specialized agencies and related organizations 165
  10. Cooperation between the United Nations and the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee 165
  11. United Nations Institute for Training and Research 166
B. General review of the legal activities of intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations  
  1. International Labour Organisation 167
  2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 167
  3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 173
  4. International Civil Aviation Organization 173
  5. World Health Organization 176
  6. World Bank 177
  7. International Monetary Fund 180
  8. Universal Postal Union 183
  9. International Maritime Organization 184
  10. World Intellectual Property Organization 186
  11. International Fund for Agricultural Development 190
  12. United Nations Industrial Development Organization 191
  13. International Atomic Energy Agency 193
Chapter IV. Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
  Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of the United Nations  
    International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 18 December 1990 209
Chapter V. Decisions of Administrative Tribunals of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
A. Decisions of the United Nations Administrative Tribunal  
  1. Judgement No. 482 (25 May 1990): Qiu, Zhou and Yao v. the Secretary-General of the United Nations  
      Claims to be reinstated as staff members of the United Nations —Obligation of the Secretary-General to give reasonable consideration to granting career appointments to staff on fixed-term appointments, including fixed-term appointments on secondment, with five years of continuing good service, under Articles 100 and 101 of the Charter of the United Nations, the Staff Rules and Regulations and General Assembly resolutions 37/126 and 38/23—Conditions laid down for an official to be on secondment—Limits to the Secretary-General's discretionary powers—An exceptional character of the case justifying the payment of higher compensation 239
  2. Judgement No. 492 (2 November 1990): Dauchy v. the Secretary-General of the United Nations  
      "Replacement" practice developed by the Secretary-General in relation to a specific category of Member State—Claim that this practice is inconsistent with Article 101, paragraph 3, of the Charter of the United Nations, regulation 4.4 of the Staff Regulations and the general principles governing the international civil service—Interpretation of General Assembly resolution 35/210, section I, paragraph 4—Liability of the Organization 241
  3. Judgement No. 499 (8 November 1990): Amoa v. the Secretary-General of the United Nations  
      Request of a former staff member of the United Nations for reinstatement and compensation on the ground that he had an expectancy of continued employment with the United Nations and for damages on account of delays by the Joint Appeals Board 242
B. Decisions of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization  
  1. Judgement No. 1000 (23 January 1990): Clements, Patak and Roedl v. the International Atomic Energy Agency  
      New salary scales for General Service staff drawn up by the International Civil Service Commission—Complainants were objecting to a flat 2.4 per cent reduction in salary that purported to offset the value of the so-called "Commissary benefit"—Annex II, paragraph B.I, of the Agency's Provisional Staff Regulations, providing that the pay shall normally be based on "the best prevailing conditions of employment in the locality" (Fleming principle)—Question whether the Commissary benefit was relevant in determining the best local conditions 244
  2. Judgement No. 1012 (23 January 1990): Aelvoet and others v. the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation  
      Reduction of staff's salary—Question whether the complainants may challenge the Director General's decisions to apply the general measures to them and thereby also challenge the lawfulness of the Permanent Commission's decisions—Pay slips issued on the basis of the Commission's decision that still had to come into effect 245
  3. Judgement No. 1033 (26 June 1990): Heitz v. the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants  
      Tribunal's competence to hear the complaint of an official employed by the organization that has not recognized the Tribunal's jurisdiction—The administrative arrangements provided for in its Agreement with the World Intellectual Property Organization do not impair its distinct legal identity 247
C. Decisions of the World Bank Administrative Tribunal  
    Decision No. 93 (25 May 1990): Wahie v. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development  
      Applicant's contention that the Respondent should restore her right to duty station country citizenship and resumption of G-4 visa status—Staff rules 6.13 and 6.14 concerning expatriate benefits—Tribunal's understanding of the rationale behind the system of expatriate benefits and its approach to citizenship 248
Chapter VI. Selected legal opinions of the Secretariats of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
A. Legal opinions of the Secretariat of the United Nations (issued or prepared by the Office of Legal Affairs)  
  1. Flag etiquette code to be followed on naval vessels provided by a troop-contributing country to the United Nations Observer Group in Central America—Practice concerning the use of the United Nations flag on vessels, pursuant to the 1958 Geneva Convention on the High Seas, status agreements concluded between the United Nations and host countries and the United Nations Flag Code and Regulations 252
  2. Invitation to the United Nations to observe presidential elections in a Member State—General rule that the Organization does not monitor elections in Member States—Basis for the Secretary-General's authority to send observer teams 254
  3. Questions whether the United Nations Children's Fund or the UNICEF Greeting Card Operation could be a shareholder in a printing company and whether UNICEF staff members could serve on the board of directors of the company—Incompatibility of these activities with the character and status of the United Nations, of which UNICEF is a subsidiary organ 256
  4. Advisability of the United Nations entering into a profit-making joint venture with a private publishing firm—Purpose of the current commercially oriented activities of the United Nations—Participation in a profit-oriented commercial joint venture could put the status and character of the Organization in question 257
  5. Question whether the United Nations Development Programme could become a founding member of a corporate body under the national law of a Member State—Character of United Nations activities in the territories of Member States—Submission of UNDP to the national law of the corporate body could be construed to constitute a waiver of the privileges and immunities to which UNDP is entitled 259
  6. Possible collaboration between the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT) and National Committees for UNCHS for fund-raising purposes—Precedents of the relationship of the United Nations Children's Fund and the United Nations Development Fund for Women with the National Committees—Terms of reference of UNCHS 260
  7. Claim by the Tokyo Energy Analysis Group that its copyright on the "OLSC", a software component used in a United Nations software program entitled "ENERPLAN", would be infringed by the Department of Technical Cooperation for Development's modification of ENERPLAN—Copyright and software protection under the Universal Copyright Convention and the Beme Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works—Copyrightability of computer software under United States law 263
  8. Award of the 1988 Nobel Peace Prize to the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces—Practical and legal obstacles to the exercise by the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces of the right to nominate candidates provided for by the Special Regulations governing the award of the Prize 269
  9. Question of the status of the United Nations Council for Namibia after Namibian independence 270
  10. Legal status of the International Trade Centre and applicability to the Centre of General Assembly resolutions regarding the participation of the Palestine Liberation Organization in United Nations meetings—Use of the designation "Palestine" in place of the designation "PLO" 271
  11. Question whether the Trade and Development Board may adopt a resolution on economic problems arising from the Gulf crisis in the light of Article 12 of the Charter of the United Nations 272
  12. Execution of projects funded by the United Nations Development Programme in the framework of its developmental cooperation and technical assistance activities—Arrangements for project execution between UNDP and other United Nations entities forming part of the Organization—Implications of articles VI and VII of the Standard Basic Executing Agency Agreement from the viewpoint of the United Nations in cases where the Department of Technical Cooperation for Development executes UNDP projects—Clarification of the meaning of the term "accountability" in the Agreement in the context of project implementation by an executing agency to UNDP 274
  13. Legal status of the United Nations Development Programme—Question whether UNDP has the capacity to acquire real property 276
  14. Question whether officers of the Executive Committee of the programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees serve in personam or whether the States they represent hold the post—Applicability of rule 19 of the rules of procedure of the functional commissions of the Economic and Social Council under rule 15 of the rules of procedure of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's programme 277
  15. Legal requirements for associate membership in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific—Paragraphs 2, 4 and 5 of the terms of reference of ESCAP 278
  16. Eventuality that there might be no agreement on the candidate for the chairmanship of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific—Applicability of rule 41 of the Commission's rules of procedure—Question whether a member of the Commission may insist on a secret ballot when there is an agreed slate for a certain region and the number of candidates corresponds to the number of seats to be filled—Rule 68 of the rules of procedure of the Economic and Social Council and rule 66 of the rules of procedure of the functional commissions of the Economic and Social Council 279
  17. Question whether it would be permissible under the statute of the International Civil Service Commission for the Secretary-General to recommend the appointment of a person as a member of the Commission for the statutory term of four years while also recommending that that person be designated as Chairman for a lesser period 280
  18. Exclusive jurisdiction of the Secretary-General over the granting of international status to staff members of the United Nations 282
  19. Rules applicable to the conduct by staff members of outside activities of a substantive nature 282
  20. Request by the Government of a Member State for the services of a staff member to assist it in legal matters—United Nations policy with respect to secondment or loan of staff to a Government—Basis on which the TOKTEN and the OPAS/OPEX programmes Operate 284
  21. Claim of the right of authorship by a former staff member of the United Nations Children's Fund—Rule 112.7 of the Staff Rules of the United Nations 285
  22. Claim by a former United Nations staff member on account of an accident on United Nations premises—Question whether the local compensation law is applicable within the United Nations Headquarters district—Relevant provisions of the Agreement between the United Nations and the host country—Provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations of the United Nations governing compensation in the event of death, injury or illness attributable to the performance of official duties on behalf of the United Nations—Non-applicability of national labour laws 286
  23. Petition by a company for an order staying the arbitration commenced by the United Nations—Immunity of the United Nations from every form of legal process under the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 287
  24. Practice of the United Nations with respect to the application of value-added tax to purchases of goods and services for official use—Article II, section 8, of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations—Question whether staff members enjoy personal exemption from such taxes in relation to purchases of goods and services not intended for official United Nations use 288
  25. Limitation imposed in a Member State on exemption from payment of value-added tax on purchases made by the United Nations Development Programme for the construction of the UNDP office building in the State concerned—United Nations policy and procedure with respect to the payment of value-added tax—Article II, section 8, of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 289
  26. Imposition of value-added tax on the sale of United Nations Children's Fund greeting cards and related materials in a Member State by the National Committee for UNICEF—Question whether UNICEF owns all Greeting Card Operation products until sold and is entitled to reimbursement of value-added tax—Article II, sections 7 and 8, of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 290
  27. Question whether the United Nations should claim exemption from excise tax on the sale of chemicals which deplete the ozone layer imposed by a domestic law enacted in pursuance of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer—Purpose of the Montreal Protocol 291
  28. Taxation of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund in a Member State—Character of the turnover tax, stamp duty tax and other taxes related to the securities activities of the Fund—Article II, section 7 (a), of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 292
  29. Question of exemption from customs duties for articles imported for sale by the National Committee for UNICEF—Legal aspects of the relationship between UNICEF and the National Committee for UNICEF—Objectives of UNICEF Greeting Card Operation—Article II, section 7, of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 293
  30. Question of the sale in a Member State of used vehicles belonging to the United Nations Development Programme—Domestic regulations preventing the UNDP office from disposing of its used vehicles through competitive bidding as provided for in the Financial Regulations and Rules of UNDP—Article II, section 7 (b), of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations—Rule 114.35 of the Financial Regulations and Rules of UNDP 294
  31. Advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice of 15 December 1989 on the applicability of article VI, section 22, of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations in the case of a Special Rapporteur of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights—Question whether in the light of the advisory opinion the members and alternate members of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Board representing the governing bodies of the Fund's member organizations, who are at the same time representatives of their States to the United Nations, are entitled to United Nations laissez-passer and multiple entry visas—Article VII, sections 24, 25 and 26, of the Convention 295
  32. Question of the standard of travel applicable to members of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People who are appointed to represent the Committee itself at seminars, symposia and other meetings away from Headquarters—Rules contained in Secretary-General's Bulletin ST/SGB/107/Rev.5 governing the payment of travel expenses for members of organs or subsidiary organs of the United Nations 297
  33. Refusal by a diplomat to follow an order by a customs officer of a receiving State to open the trunk of a diplomatic car—Legal status of the means of transport of a diplomatic mission—Articles 22, 30 and 36 of the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations—Article IV, section 9, of the Interim Arrangement on Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations concluded between the Secretary-General and the Swiss Federal Council, of 11 June 1946 304
  34. Consultants, fellows and experts of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research appointed under article VI, paragraph 2, of the statute of UNITAR—Clarification of the meaning of the terms "officials" and "experts on missions" as used in the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations and the relevant annexes of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies 305
  35. Legal status of locally recruited officials of the United Nations—All United Nations officials are exempt from taxes on their United Nations salaries and emoluments irrespective of their nationality or residence—Article V, section 18 (b), of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 306
  36. Privileges and immunities enjoyed by short-term consultants—Application of the host country regulations on motor vehicles to persons entitled to duty-free importation of automobiles—Provisions of the 1954 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Headquarters Agreement 307
  37. Taxation by the authorities of a Member State of locally recruited nationals or permanent residents of that State employed by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees—Article V, section 18 (c), of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 309
  38. Exemption of United Nations officials from national service obligations—Article V, section 18 (c), of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations—Arrangements set out in appendix C of the Staff Rules with respect to military service in the case of Governments which have not acceded to the exemption provided for in the Convention 310
B. Legal opinions of the secretariats of intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations  
  Legal opinions of the secretariat of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (Issued or prepared by the Legal Service)  
  1. United Nations sanctions against Iraq—Shipment of equipment to a project in Iraq—Force majeure 311
  2. Merger of Democratic Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic—Unification of the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany 313
  3. Comments on a note verbale dated 4 October 1990 from the Permanent Mission of the Federal Republic of Germany regarding the continued application of treaties of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic in accordance with the German Unification Treaty 314

Part Three. Judicial decisions on questions relating to the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

Chapter VII. Decisions and Advisory Opinions of International Tribunals View PDF file
Chapter VIII. Decisions of National Tribunals View PDF file

Part Four. Bibliography

Bibliography View PDF file
Legal bibliography of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations  
A. International organizations and international law in general  
  1. General 325
  2. Particular questions 327
B. United Nations  
  1. General 329
  2. Particular organs 330
      General Assembly 330
      International Court of Justice 330
      Secretariat 332
      Security Council 332
      United Nations Forces 332
  3. Particular questions or activities 335
      Collective security 335
      Commercial arbitration 335
      Consular relations 338
      Diplomatic relations 338
      Disarmament 338
      Domestic jurisdiction 340
      Environmental questions 340
      Financing 344
      Friendly relations and cooperation among States 344
      Human rights 344
      International administrative law 350
      International criminal law 351
      International economic law 352
      International terrorism 353
      International trade law 356
      International waterways 358
      Intervention 358
      Law of the sea 359
      Law of treaties 362
      Law of war 363
      Maintenance of peace 365
      Membership and representation 365
      Most-favoured-nation clause 365
      Namibia 366
      Narcotic drugs 367
      Natural resources 367
      Non-governmental organizations 368
      Outer space 369
      Peaceful settlement of disputes 373
      Political and security questions 374
      Progressive development and codification of international law (in general) 375
      Recognition of States 375
      Refugees 375
      Right of asylum 377
      Rule of law 378
      Self-defence 378
      Self-determination 378
      State responsibility 379
      State sovereignty 381
      State succession 381
      Technical cooperation 381
      Trade and development 382
      Trusteeship 382
      Use of force 382
C. Intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations  
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 383
    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades 384
    International Atomic Energy Agency 384
    International Civil Aviation Organization 385
    International Labour Organization 385
    International Maritime Organization 385
    International Monetary Fund 386
    International Telecommunication Union 386
    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 386
    World Bank 386
    International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes 386
    World Health Organization 387
    World Intellectual Property Organization 387