Codification Division Publications: United Nations Juridical Yearbook Codification Division Publications: United Nations Juridical Yearbook

Last update: January 24, 2018

1998

Complete PDF »

Search 1998 Yearbook »

Part One. Legal status of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

Chapter I. Legislative texts concerning the legal status of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
  Switzerland  
    Directive on hiring of private servants by international civil servants 3
Chapter II. Treaty provisions concerning the legal status of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
A. Treaty provisions concerning the legal status of the United Nations  
  1. Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations. Approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 13 February 1946 19
  2. Agreements relating to installations and meetings  
    (a) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Nepal concerning the tenth United Nations Meeting on Peace and Disarmament in the Asia-Pacific Region, entitled "The 10th Anniversary of the Kathmandu Process", to be held in Kathmandu from 22 to 24 February 1981. New York, 26 and 28 January 1998 19
    (b) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Norway concerning arrangements regarding the Meeting of the Parties to the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, of the Economic Commission for Europe, to be held in Oslo from 18 to 20 May 1998. Geneva, 4 February and 7 April 1998 21
    (c) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of the Netherlands concerning the in-kind donation of a functional main courtroom for the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. The Netherlands, 18 February 1998 24
    (d) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Belgium concerning the arrangements for the Conference in Support of the Fundamental Rights of the Palestinian People, to be held in Brussels from 24 to 26 February 1998. New York, 20 February 1998 27
    (e) Special agreement between the United Nations and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea extending the jurisdiction of the United Nations Administrative Tribunal to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, with respect to applications by staff members of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea alleging nonobservance of the Regulations of the United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund. Signed at Hamburg on 18 February 1998 and at New York on 25 February 1998 30
    (f) Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation between the United Nations and the Government of Iraq. Signed at Baghdad on 23 February 1998. 31
    (g) Agreement between the United Nations (United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)) and the Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil concerning the operation in Brazil of the Habitat Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean. Signed at Brasília on 10 March 1998 33
    (h) Agreement between the Government of Norway and the United Nations on the enforcement of sentences of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Signed at The Hague on 24 April 1998 38
    (i) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Fiji on the arrangements for the Pacific Regional Seminar concerning the International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism, to be held at Nadi from 16 to 18 June 1998. New York, 30 April 1998 42
    (j) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and Sierra Leone on the status of the United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone. New York, 29 July 1998 46
    (k) Agreement between the United Nations, the Secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning the headquarters of the Convention Permanent Secretariat. Signed in Bonn on 18 August 1998 48
    (l) Exchange of letters concerning an arrangement between the United Nations and the Government of Slovakia constituting an agreement regarding the Seminar on Improving Working Conditions and Increasing Productivity in Forestry, and the twenty-second session of the joint FAO/ECE/ILO Committee on Forest Technology, Management and Training, of the Economic Commission for Europe, to be held in Banská Štiavnica from 9 to 11 September and in Zvolen from 14 to 16 September 1998. Geneva, 25 August and 3 September 1998 54
    (m) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Botswana concerning the arrangements for the Workshop on the United Nations/Sida International Training Course on Remote Sensing for Educators, Gaborone, 18 to 21 October 1998. Vienna, 11 September and 13 October 1998 57
    (n) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Romania on the United Nations Regional Preparatory Conference for Eastern Europe on the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III Conference), Bucharest, 25 to 29 January 1999. Vienna, 30 September and 23 October 1998 59
    (o) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Greece concerning arrangements for the Athens Meeting of the Georgian and Abkhaz Sides on Confidence-Building Measures, from 16 to 18 October 1998. Georgia, 10 October 1998 62
    (p) Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria on the status of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara. Signed at New York on 3 November 1998 66
    (q) Memorandum of Understanding between the United Nations and the Federal Government of Austria for the loan of prison staff to the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Signed at The Hague on 4 November 1998 78
    (r) Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Canada concerning the privileges, immunities and other facilities of the United Nations officials servicing the Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Signed at Cairo on 23 November 1998 81
    (s) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Italy concerning arrangements for the Bethlehem 2000 International Conference organized by the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, to be held in Rome on 18 and 19 February 1999. New York, 28 and 30 December 1998 85
  3. Agreements relating to the United Nations Children's Fund Basic Cooperation Agreement between the United Nations (United Nations Children's Fund) and the Government of the Republic of Panama. Panama, 4 June 1998 88
  4. Agreements relating to the United Nations Development Programme  
    (a) Letter of agreement between the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization concerning collaboration between the two organizations. Signed at New York on 31 October 1998 97
    (b) Agreement between the United Nations Development Programme and the Government of New Zealand for the provision of personnel to support unexploded ordnance operations in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Signed at New York on 18 December 1998 100
  5. Agreements relating to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights  
    (a) Exchange of letters constituting an agreement between the United Nations and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on the status of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Geneva, 6 and 9 November 1998 103
    (b) Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation between the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Commonwealth Secretariat. Signed at London on 1 December 1998 110
  6. Agreements relating to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees  
    (a) Agreement between the United Nations (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) and the Government of Ukraine on the establishment of a United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees field office in Ukraine. Signed at Kiev on 23 September 1998 113
    (b) Cooperation Agreement between the United Nations (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) and the Government of the Republic of Moldova. Signed at Chisinau on 2 December 1998 121
B. Treaty provisions concerning the legal status of intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations  
  1. Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the specialized Agencies. Approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 21 November 1947 129
  2. International Labour Organization  
      Exchange of letters between the Director-General of the International Labour Office and the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey concerning the transformation of the International Labour Organization office in Ankara into a branch office. Geneva, 12 February and 8 May 1998 130
  3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization  
    (a) Memorandum of cooperation between the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Republic of Estonia. Done at Tallinn on 9 June 1998 131
    (b) Agreement between the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of Norway concerning the first session of the World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (Oslo, 11-13 November 1998) 135
  4. World Health Organization  
      Basic Agreement between the World Health Organization and the Government of the Republic of Palau. Done in Palau on 13 April 1998 136
  5. World Intellectual Property Organization  
      Agreement between the World Intellectual Property Organization and the Government of Australia in relation to the functioning of the Australian Patent Office as an International Searching Authority and International Preliminary Examining Authority under the Patent Cooperation Treaty. Done at Geneva on 4 December 1998 139
  6. United Nations Industrial Development Organization  
    (a) Memorandum of Understanding between the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development concerning a strategic alliance for investment promotion in developing countries. Signed at Geneva on 26 March 1998 143
    (b) Agreement between the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the Republic of Austria regarding the headquarters of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization 146
    (c) Memorandum of Understanding between the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the Government of Lebanon on continued operation in 1998 of a UNIDO field office in Beirut covering Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic and Jordan. Signed on 25 June 1998 159
  7. International Atomic Energy Agency  
      Protocol additional to the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Done at Vienna on 28 July 1998 160

Part Two. Legal activities of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

Chapter III. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
A. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations  
  1. Disarmament and related matters 173
  2. Other political and security questions 176
  3. Environmental, economic, social, humanitarian and cultural questions 178
  4. Law of the sea 192
  5. International Court of Justice 194
  6. International Law Commission 223
  7. United Nations Commission on International Trade Law 225
  8. Legal questions dealt with by the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly and by ad hoc legal bodies 226
  9. United Nations Institute for Training and Research 229
B. General review of the legal activities of intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations  
  1. International Labour Organization 229
  2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 232
  3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 233
  4. World Bank 235
  5. International Monetary Fund 238
  6. International Civil Aviation Organization 243
  7. Universal Postal Union 244
  8. International Maritime Organization 245
  9. World Intellectual Property Organization 253
  10. United Nations Industrial Development Organization 262
  11. International Atomic Energy Agency 265
Chapter IV. Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
  Treaties concerning international law concluded under the auspices of the United Nations  
  1. Protocol on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Seabed Authority. Done at Kingston, Jamaica, on 27 March 1998. 275
  2. Tampere Convention on the provision of telecommunication resources for disaster mitigation and relief operations. Done at Aarhus, Denmark, on 25 June 1998 282
  3. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Done at Rome on 17 July 1998. 294
  4. Rotterdam Convention on the prior informed consent procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade. Done at Rotterdam on 20 September 1998 360
Chapter V. Decisions of Administrative Tribunals of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
A. Decisions of the United Nations Administrative Tribunal  
  1. Judgement No. 870 (31 July 1998): Choudhury and Ramchandani v. the Secretary-General of the United Nations  
      Non-promotion—Question of bias or discrimination— Committee taking administrative decisions should be properly constituted—Mere expectancy of promotion does not create a right to promotion 381
  2. Judgement No. 872 (31 July 1998): Hjelmqvist v. the Secretary-General of the United Nations  
      Question of a grossly negligent medical evacuation— Compensation for service-incurred injury—Question of reimbursement for travel expenses—Appendix D to the United Nations Staff Rules—Compensation of an unreasonable delay—Entitlement to daily subsistence allowance while recuperating from an injury—Access to United Nations medical files—Award of compensation under special circumstances 382
  3. Judgement No. 874 (31 July 1998): Abbas v. the Commissioner-General of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  
      Non-withdrawal of staff member's resignation—Area staff rule 109.6—Question of when resignation becomes effective—Question of prejudice or improper motivation in not granting re-employment—Separation on health grounds—Question of coerced resignation—Joint Appeals Board should avoid even the appearance of bias or partiality 388
  4. Judgement No. 879 (31 July 1998): Karmel v. the Secretary-General of the United Nations  
      Abolishment of post—Obligations of good-faith efforts by the Administration and creation of another post with the same defining functions—Compensation for anguish, humiliation and stress 390
  5. Judgement No. 885 (4 August 1998): Handelsman v. the Secretary-General of the United Nations  
      Non-renewal of appointment under 200 Series—United Nations staff rule 204.3—Question of countervailing circumstances in non-renewal of 200 Series staff— Question of an express promise regarding continuation of employment—General Assembly resolution 37/126— Compensation for disingenuous efforts of Administration in assisting Applicant in finding an alternative post 392
  6. Judgement No. 897 (20 November 1998): Jhuthi v. the Secretary-General of the United Nations  
      Dismissal for misconduct—Disciplinary measures involve an exercise of a quasi-judicial power—A finding of misconduct—Burden of proof in disciplinary cases— Application of obsolete procedure for suspension from duty—Right of counsel 395
  7. Judgement No. 903 (20 November 1998): Khalil v. the Commissioner-General of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  
      Refusal to change Applicant's date of birth in relation to date of retirement—Question whether appeal to the Joint Appeals Board was lodged within the prescribed time limits—Personnel directive A/9—Policy against date of birth change 397
  8. Judgement No. 906 (20 November 1998): Ziadeh v. the Commissioner-General of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  
      Termination on medical grounds—Audi alteram partem— Importance of Medical Board report being transparent and stating reasons for conclusions—Question of bias or prejudice—Reinstatement of Applicant not appropriate remedy 399
B. Decisions of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization  
  1. Judgement No. 1689 (29 January 1998): Montenez (No. 2) v. European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol Agency)  
      Non-promotion—Limited review of promotion decisions— Roles of selection and promotion boards—Role of private firm in selection process—Article 2 (1) (a) of rule No. 2—Article 2 (2) of rule No. 2—Article 6, paragraph 5, of rule No. 2—Importance of an organization following its procedure 402
  2. Judgement No. 1696 (29 January 1998): Felkai v. Customs Cooperation Council  
      Termination of appointment because of poor performance— —Regulation 9—Review of probationer is very limited—Delegation of authority must have basis in the Rules—Compensation, not reinstatement, for lost earnings—Question of moral injury—Article VII (1) of Tribunal's statute—Question of abuse of discretion 406
  3. Judgement No. 1706 (29 January 1998): Broere-Moore (No. 5) v. United Nations Industrial Development Organization  
      Gender discrimination—Question of being a staff member at time of selection process—Staff rule 103.12(a)(ii)— Policy of giving preference to women—Question of agreed termination—Tribunal's jurisdiction regarding discrimination issues vis-á-vis a panel on discrimination 408
  4. Judgement No. 1728 (29 January 1998): Swaroop v. World Health Organization  
      Termination because of abolishment of post—Role of a Reduction-in-Force Committee—Manual paragraphs II. 9.280 and 5.30—Question of half-time posts— Reasonable offer of reassignment 411
  5. Judgement No. 1733 (29 January 1998): Umar v. International Atomic Energy Agency  
      Non-promotion—Question of governmental sponsorship— ILO Judgement No. 431 (in re Rosescu)—Paragraph 68 of the Administrative Manual and paragraph A.2 of staff notice SEC/NOT/1309 415
  6. Judgement No. 1742 (9 July 1998): Everts (No. 2) v. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations  
      Suspension from duty due to misconduct—Importance of disciplinary process safeguards 417
  7. Judgement No. 1745 (9 July 1998): de Roos v. European Southern Observatory  
      Abolishment of post—Question of outsourcing—Question of breach of promise by the Administration—Importance of giving true reason for outsourcing—Organization must do its best in reassigning displaced staff 419
  8. Judgement No. 1747 (9 July 1998): Gilli and Noethe v. European Southern Observatory  
      Failure of organization to reveal complete Advisory Appeals Board report on another staff member's appeal— Question of receivability—Articles R VI 1.10 and VI 1.11 of the Staff Regulations 421
  9. Judgement No. 1750 (9 July 1998): Peroni v. International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization  
      Non-renewal of appointment—For appeal to be received, staff member must exhaust all internal means of redress—Claims of staff member must be cast in language such that an organization would gather that a decision was expected of it—Limited review of non-renewal decisions of short-term or fixed-term appointments—Question of discriminatory treatment—Duty of organization to ease hardship of nonrenewal decisions 423
  10. Judgement No. 1752 (9 July 1998): Qin (Nos. 1 and 2) v. International Labour Organization  
      Claims made by widower and son of staff member who had committed suicide—Widower can only plead rights arising from wife's contract of employment— Question of suicide being attributable to official duties—Role of Compensation Committee—Limited review of Medical Board's conclusions—Article 8.3 of Staff Regulations— Article II (6) of Tribunal's statute 425
  11. Judgement No. 1763 (9 July 1998): Gonzalez-Montes v. International Atomic Energy Agency  
      Dismissal because of misconduct—Questions of general corruption among airline ticket suppliers, even if proven, did not relieve staff member of fraud—Chairman of Disciplinary Board must refrain from personal involvement in the investigation—Members of the Board appealed from may not give legal advice to the body which hears the appeal 428
  12. Judgement No. 1768 (9 July 1998): Bodar v. European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol Agency)  
      Non-appointment to post—Issues of receivability—Question of failure of Administration's referral to advisory body— Decision must be set aside regardless of consequences for appointed staff member—Tribunal could not entertain claims of appointed staff member in present case 429
  13. Judgement No. 1769 (9 July 1998): Chvojka v. International Atomic Energy Agency  
      Responsibility for loss of vested pension rights under Austrian Pension Insurance Scheme—Tribunal's jurisdiction limited to granting relief for breach of the terms of employment of international civil servants—Question of an acquired right—Staff rule 8.01.3(A)(2)—Question of compensating staff member to make him whole—Dissent argued that Agency had not altered rights of staff member but rather the Austrian Government had done so 432
  14. Judgement No. 1770 (9 July 1998): Ballester Rodés v. European Patent Organization  
      Backdating effective date of promotion—Article 49(7) and (10) of the EPO Service Regulations—To exclude any possible injustice in non-promotion decision, case sent back to Promotion Board 437
  15. Judgement No. 1772 (9 July 1998): Tueni v. United Nations Industrial Development Organization  
      Abolishment of post—UNIDO staff regulation 10.3(a) and staff rule 10.02(a)—Importance of Advisory Group observing its own procedural rules 440
  16. Judgement No. 1779 (9 July 1998): Feistauer v. International Labour Organization  
      Abolishment of post and transfer to Bangkok—Limited review of restructuring and redeployment of staff—Question of abuse of authority—Question of an improper procedure regarding abolition of post and transfer 445
C. Decisions of the World Bank Administrative Tribunal  
  1. Decision No. 185 (15 May 1998): Ezatklah v. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development  
      Redundant post—Limited review of redundancy decisions— Staff rule 7.01—Question of retaliation—Material difference between new post and abolished post—Obligation on organization to make an effort to find alternative post 447
  2. Decision No. 188 (15 May 1998): Singh v. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development  
      Termination based on unsatisfactory performance—Evaluation of staff performance is a discretionary decision— Protections under staff rule 7.01—Interpersonal relations cannot be ignored in performance evaluation—Abuse of discretion regarding performance evaluation—Difference between unsatisfactory performance based on professional incompetence and unsatisfactory performance based on questions of personal relations—Question of remedies 447
  3. Decision No. 197 (19 October 1998): Rendall-Speranza v. International Finance Corporation  
      Complaint of sexual harassment—Request for anonymity— Definition of sexual harassment—Staff rule 8.01—Nature of investigation phase was administrative and not adjudicatory—Question of irregularities during investigation phase—Credibility of victim—Question of actions amounting to sexual harassment—Other improper behaviour giving rise to compensation for the victim—Staff rule 4.02 on probation and staff rule 7.01 on ending employment—Question of a hostile working environment 447
D. Decisions of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Monetary Fund  
    Judgement No. 1998-1 (18 December 1998): Ms. "Y" v. International Monetary Fund  
      Receivability of claim—Statutory requirement of exhaustion of administrative remedies—Importance of producing a detailed factual record for consideration by Administrative Tribunal 461
Chapter VI. Selected legal opinions of the secretariats of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations View PDF file
A. Legal opinions of the Secretariat of the United Nations (issued or prepared by the Office of Legal Affairs)  
  Commercial issues  
  1. Use of United Nations name and emblem by national United Nations Associations and their local affiliates—General Assembly resolution 92 (I) of 7 December 1946 467
  Personnel  
  2. Reimbursement of income taxes for staff members of dual nationality—Permanent United States residents—Visa status of staff members—Staff regulation 3.3 (f) 469
  3. Conditions of service of locally recruited staff—Nationally recruited project professional personnel 471
  4. Status of United Nations Volunteers—Article 105, paragraph 1, of the Charter of the United Nations 473
  5. Contractual relationship between the United Nations and individuals whose services are directly remunerated by their Government or other donor entity—Cooperation Service Agreements. 475
  6. Financial conflict of interest—United Nations policy—Conflict of interest of staff members —General Assembly resolution 52/252 of 8 September 1998 477
  Privileges and immunities [see also: additional legal opinions]  
  7. Payment of social security contributions by locally recruited employees—Exemption of the United Nations from national security schemes—Article II, section 7 (a), and article V, section 18, of the 1946 Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 479
  8. Question of whether contractors' personnel could be considered as "experts on mission"—Article VI, section 22, of the 1946 Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations 481
  9. Military service obligation of locally recruited staff—Appendix C to the United Nations Staff Rules 482
  Procedural and institutional issues  
  10. Procedures for obtaining observer status with the General Assembly of the United Nations 483
  11. Circulation of communications from the Organization of the Islamic Conference—Article 54 of the Charter of the United Nations 484
  12. Executing agency status with the United Nations Development Programme of the Centre for International Crime Prevention—designation of United Nations organizational units as executing agencies 485
  13. Rules of procedure applicable with respect to the participation of non-governmental organizations in the Commission on the Status of Women—General Assembly resolution 52/100 of 12 December 1997 488
  14. Status of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme—Memorandum of Understanding on a Joint and Co-sponsored United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 490
B. Legal opinions of the Secretariats of intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations 492

Part Three. Judicial decisions on questions relating to the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

Chapter VII. Decisions and Advisory Opinions of International Tribunals View PDF file
Chapter VIII. Decisions of national tribunals View PDF file

Part Four. Bibliography

Bibliography View PDF file
Legal bibliography of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations  
A. International organizations and international law in general  
  1. General 502
  2. Particular questions 503
B. United Nations  
  1. General 507
  2. Particular organs 507
      General Assembly 507
      International Court of Justice 508
      Secretariat 511
      Security Council 511
      United Nations Forces 513
  3. Particular questions or activities 513
      Collective security 513
      Commercial arbitration 514
      Consular relations 514
      Diplomatic relations 514
      Disarmament 515
      Environmental questions 515
      Human rights 518
      International administrative law 522
      International criminal law 522
      International economic law 525
      International terrorism 526
      International trade law 526
      International waterways 527
      Intervention 527
      Law of the sea 528
      Law of treaties 529
      Law of war 530
      Maintenance of peace 532
      Membership and representation 532
      Narcotic drugs 532
      Natural resources 532
      Non-governmental organizations 533
      Peaceful settlement of disputes 534
      Political and security questions 535
      Progressive development and codification of international law (in general) 535
      Recognition of States 536
      Refugees 536
      Rule of law 537
      Self-determination 538
      State responsibility 538
      State sovereignty 538
      State succession 539
      Technical cooperation 539
      Trade and development 539
      Use of force 539
C. Intergovernmental organizations related to the United Nations  
    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 539
    International Atomic Energy Agency 539
    International Civil Aviation Organization 539
    International Labour Organization 540
    International Monetary Fund 540
    International Telecommunication Union 540
    World Bank 540
      International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes 540
    World Health Organization 541
    World Trade Organization 541