Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, 1994,
and the 1996 Supplementary Declaration thereto
  •  Introductory Note 
  •  Procedural History 
  •  Documents 
  •  Video 
By Rohan Perera
Adviser on International Legal Affairs to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sri Lanka
Chairman of the Ad Hoc Committee established by General Assembly resolution 51/210
of 17 December 1996 (measures to eliminate international terrorism)

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Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (1994)

Historical Context

The treatment of the subject of measures to eliminate international terrorism in the United Nations spanning the 1970s was characterised by a definitional debate of the term “terrorism”, some arguing that a precise definition of the term, clearly distinguishing it from acts committed in the course of national liberation struggles, was essential in order to delimit accurately the different elements that were involved in the concept. It was further contended that law-enforcement measures to eliminate international terrorism could not be undertaken without a study of its underlying causes. Others, however, argued that a prior definition of terrorism was neither realistic nor desirable, given the divergent political perceptions that existed on the issue and that the study of the underlying causes should not delay the urgent need for international cooperation in the adoption of legal measures to combat and eliminate terrorism.

Notwithstanding the definitional debate and the ensuing dichotomous approach to the question, it is noteworthy that the international community adopted what is now referred to as the “sectoral approach” in devising legal norms to address the problem of combating terrorism. The sectoral approach, which was pragmatic in nature, was characterised by the adoption of a series of specific conventions, each dealing with a defined crime, involving the use of indiscriminate violence, which was most likely to be committed by terrorists and which imposed upon the State parties the obligation to extradite or prosecute the offender.

Following the early conventions to combat aerial hijacking, specific conventions were adopted to deal with new and different forms and manifestations of terrorism, such as the phenomenon of hostage taking, unlawful acts against airports and civil aviation facilities and unlawful acts against the safety of maritime navigation.

The sectoral approach was directed towards a preclusion of options available to a terrorist offender through the establishment of the widest possible network of treaty obligations, which obliged States to extradite or prosecute terrorist offenders without exception.

Significant Developments in the Negotiating History and Summary of Key Provisions

The 1990s witnessed a rapid expansion of the spread of acts of terrorism in many regions of the world. The growing and dangerous links between terrorist groups and other criminal groups engaged in organized transnational crime, such as drug trafficking, human smuggling, unlawful arms trade, money laundering and the smuggling of nuclear and other potentially dangerous material had begun to manifest themselves, and demanded a concerted response by way of heightened international cooperation.

New issues, such as the involvement of States, either directly or indirectly, through the use of their territories for the perpetration of terrorist acts against other States, financing of acts of terrorism, abuse of the status of asylum and refugee status for the perpetration of terrorist acts against other States, called for the urgent attention of the international community. The question of concluding a new generation of sectoral conventions was yet to acquire broad acceptance among Member States. Against this backdrop, the preferred option was to negotiate and adopt a comprehensive Declaration of Principles addressing these key aspects of the problem. Accordingly, the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (hereinafter referred to as the Declaration) was adopted by General Assembly resolution 49/60 of 9 December 1994.

The preamble to the Declaration, in paragraph 8, reflects the concerns expressed during the deliberations on the need to address the problem of combating terrorism in a comprehensive manner.

“Convinced also that the suppression of acts of international terrorism, including those in which States are directly or indirectly involved, is an essential element for the maintenance of international peace and security,”

Part II of the Declaration further elaborates the aspect of the involvement of State actors in acts of terrorism, which became a contentious issue in the negotiation of the more recent conventions. Thus basing itself on the Charter of the United Nations and the Declaration of Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States, the principle of non-use of the territory of one State for the perpetration of terrorist acts against another was incorporated.

“States, guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and other relevant rules of international law, must refrain from organizing, instigating, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in territories of other States, or from acquiescing in or encouraging activities within their territories directed towards the commission of such acts;” (paragraph 4)

An aspect related to the concept of non-use of territory for the perpetration of terrorist acts against another State, is the question of possible abuse of asylum or refugee status for such purposes. Thus, paragraph 5 (f) requires that States should take appropriate measures before granting asylum for the purpose of ensuring that the asylum seeker has not engaged in terrorist activities and, after granting asylum, for the purpose of ensuring that refugee status is not used in a manner contrary to the provisions set out in sub-paragraph (a), relating to the non-use of territory for terrorist purposes.

The negotiation of this provision involved a delicate balancing of contending principles, i.e., on the one hand, the need to preserve the sanctity of the status of territorial asylum and refugee status as recognized in general international law, in particular the applicable international conventions, and, on the other hand, the need to prevent an abuse of such status for the perpetration of terrorist activities in another State. Thus, paragraph 5 of the Declaration, in urging States to take “effective and resolute measures,” inter alia, in respect of abuse of refugee status, makes it clear that such measures should be “in accordance with the relevant provisions of international law and international standards of human rights.”

This compromise, worked out in relation to the Declaration, resurfaced in the context of the 1996 Declaration to Supplement the 1994 Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (1996 Supplement) and of other legal initiatives that were to follow.

Another key development was the recognition in the Declaration that political and related considerations could not be invoked as grounds to justify the perpetration of terrorist acts; thus, paragraph 3 of the Declaration provides that:

“Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them;”

The question of non-invocation of political considerations or motivation to justify acts of terrorism was to surface in sharper focus in the context of subsequent legal instruments to be negotiated in this field.

The Declaration also envisages practical measures of cooperation among Member States by way of preventive measures for combating terrorism, which are set out in paragraphs 5 (d) and 6 of the Declaration. These include:

(a) strengthening the exchange of information concerning the prevention and combating of terrorism;
(b) effective implementation of the relevant international conventions, including the harmonization of domestic legislation with these conventions; and
(c) conclusion of mutual judicial assistance and extradition agreements on a bilateral, regional and multilateral basis.

The Secretary-General was also mandated to assist in the implementation of the Declaration by taking specific practical measures to enhance international cooperation, including through the collection of data on the status and implementation of existing bilateral and multilateral treaties relating to terrorism, the preparation of a compendium of national laws and regulations regarding the prevention and suppression of international terrorism and the preparation of an analytical review of existing international legal instruments relating to international terrorism, in order to assist States to identify aspects that had not been covered by such instruments and could be addressed to develop further a comprehensive legal framework of conventions dealing with international terrorism.

Influence of the Instrument on Subsequent Legal Developments

The Declaration contributed to the crystallisation of several norms for subsequent incorporation as treaty principles in legal instruments that were to follow.

The reiteration of the principle of non-use of territory for the commission of hostile acts against another State in the Declaration gave it a specific emphasis in the context of measures to combat terrorism and found its way into subsequent legal instruments, such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005) and the draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.

The incorporation of the principle of non-abuse of asylum or refugee status in the Declaration was a precursor to its further elaboration in the 1996 Supplement and thereafter in the draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.

Perhaps a crucial contribution made by the Declaration was the elaboration of the principle that political purpose or related considerations may not be invoked to justify criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public. This principle laid the foundation for the subsequent emergence of the principle that terrorist offences should not be regarded as “political offences” for purposes of extradition, as elaborated in the sectoral conventions that were to follow.

Finally, by calling for an analytical review of existing international legal instruments relating to international terrorism with a view to identifying aspects that had not been covered by such instruments and could be addressed to develop further a comprehensive legal framework of conventions, the Declaration paved the way for the “new generation” of conventions that were to follow, commencing with the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, as well as the draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, currently under negotiation. Indeed, in his 1996 report on measures to eliminate international terrorism, the Secretary-General of the United Nations identified several areas of terrorist activities for which no treaty existed, including terrorist bombings, terrorist fund-raising and the use of weapons of mass destruction for terrorist purposes, and concluded that there may be a need to develop international instruments in these fields (A/51/336 and Add.1).


1996 Declaration to Supplement the 1994 Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism

Significant Developments in the Negotiating History and Summary of Key Provisions

The principal focus of the 1996 Supplement, which was adopted by General Assembly resolution 51/210 of 17 December 1996, was the question of abuse of refugee status for the perpetration of terrorist acts against third States, which was receiving the increasing attention of the international community, in particular the refugee recipient States. The negotiations on this issue revealed the need to strike a careful balance between the need to prevent an abuse of refugee status for terrorist purposes, on the one hand, and the need to have due regard to human rights considerations, on the other. The preamble and the operational provisions of the 1996 Supplement reflect the delicate compromise that was achieved in this regard.

Preambular paragraph 6 notes that the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) (hereinafter referred to as the Refugee Convention) does not provide a basis for the protection of perpetrators of terrorist acts. It also notes in this context articles 1, 2, 32 and 33 of the Refugee Convention covering, inter alia, grounds for non-applicability of the Refugee Convention, such as where a person seeking such status has committed grave crimes.

This provision is balanced in preambular paragraph 7, which stresses the importance of full compliance by States with their obligations under the Refugee Convention and its Protocol of 1967, including the principle of non-refoulement precluding the return of refugees to places where their life or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion. The 1996 Supplement affirms “that the present Declaration does not affect the protection afforded under the terms of the Convention and the Protocol and other provisions of international law.”

The operative part of the 1996 Supplement maintains the balance that was sought to be struck and reflected in the preambular part between these contending considerations. Thus, the measures envisaged in paragraph 3 of the 1996 Supplement are required to be taken “in conformity with the relevant provisions of national and international law, including international standards of human rights...”

Subject to the above, States are required to take appropriate measures before granting refugee status for the purpose of ensuring that the asylum seeker has not participated in terrorist acts, considering in this regard relevant information as to whether the asylum seeker is subject to investigation for or is charged with or has been convicted of offences connected with terrorism. After granting refugee status, States are similarly obliged to consider relevant information to ensure that the status is not used for the purpose of preparing or organizing terrorist acts intended to be committed against other States or their citizens.

Paragraph 4 of the 1996 Supplement emphasises that asylum seekers who are awaiting the processing of the asylum applications may not thereby avoid prosecution for terrorist acts. This is consistent with the concerns of the international community to prevent safe havens being granted to terrorist offenders.

These provisions relating to the prevention of abuse of asylum status had a clear impact on subsequent instruments, as reflected in the draft articles of the draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, closely modelled on the provisions of the 1996 Supplement, which also take into account the need to balance the obligation to prevent abuse of asylum, with human rights law and human rights standards.

The 1996 Supplement reaffirms in paragraph 5 the importance of ensuring effective cooperation among Member States so that those who have participated in terrorist acts are brought to justice. In this respect, the commitment of Member States to take all appropriate steps under their domestic laws, either to extradite terrorist offenders or to submit the cases to their competent authorities for purposes of prosecution, is particularly underlined.

Influence of the 1996 Supplement on Subsequent Legal Developments

Paragraph 6 of the 1996 Supplement makes a significant contribution to the development of the principle that “terrorist crimes are not to be regarded as political offences” so as to constitute an exception to extradition, thus continuing the trend which commenced with the 1994 Declaration. The 1996 Supplement further develops the principle by encouraging States when concluding or applying extradition agreements “not to regard as political offences excluded from the scope of those agreements offences connected with terrorism which endanger or represent a physical threat to the safety and security of persons, whatever the motives which may be invoked to justify them.” This important principle was to later acquire the form of a treaty obligation by virtue of its incorporation in the “new generation” of sectoral conventions, commencing with the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (1997).

Another important contribution to the development of international law in the area of international terrorism is found in the resolution accompanying the 1996 Supplement, which provided the framework for the negotiating of further counter-terrorism legal instruments to fill the gaps identified in the report of the Secretary-General. Paragraph 9 of the resolution provided for the establishment an Ad Hoc Committee “to elaborate an international convention for the suppression of terrorist bombings and, subsequently, an international convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism, to supplement related existing international instruments, and thereafter to address means of further developing a comprehensive legal framework of conventions dealing with international terrorism”. It is in the framework of this Committee that the “new generation” of sectoral conventions were negotiated: the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (1997), the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism (1999), and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005). The Ad Hoc Committee is currently (September 2008) negotiating the draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.


Related Materials

A. Legal Instruments

Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Geneva, 28 July 1951, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 189, p. 137.

Declaration of Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States, General Assembly resolution 2625 (XXV) of 24 October 1970.

International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, New York, 15 December 1997, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2149, p. 256.

International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, New York, 9 December 1999, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2178, p. 197.

International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, New York, 13 April 2005, General Assembly resolution 59/290 of 13 April 2005.

B. Documents

Report of the Secretary-General on measures to eliminate international terrorism, 6 September 1996 (A/51/336 and Add.1).


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By a note dated 8 September 1972, accompanied by an explanatory memorandum, the Secretary-General requested that the General Assembly include in the agenda of its twenty-seventh session an item of an important and urgent character entitled “Measures to prevent terrorism and other forms of violence which endanger or take innocent lives or jeopardize fundamental freedoms” (A/8791, Corr.1 and Add.1). In the same note, the Secretary-General suggested that the item be referred to the Sixth (Legal) Committee for consideration. On 23 September 1972, pursuant to the recommendation of the General Committee, the General Assembly decided to include this item in its agenda, under the amended title “Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes”, and allocated the item to the Sixth Committee (A/27/PV.2037). Following its consideration of the item, the General Assembly adopted resolution 3034 (XXVII) of 18 December 1972, in which it inter alia decided to create an Ad Hoc Committee on International Terrorism consisting of thirty-five members to be appointed by the President of the General Assembly, requesting it to consider the observations to be submitted on the matter by States and to submit a report with recommendations for possible cooperation for the speedy elimination of the problem to the General Assembly at its following session.

The Ad Hoc Committee met in 1973 (see its report to the General Assembly, A/9029), but was later obliged to suspend its work. By resolution 31/102 of 15 December 1976, the General Assembly invited the Ad Hoc Committee to continue its work.

From 1977 to 1993, the General Assembly considered the item mentioned above biennially, in the framework of the Sixth Committee, mainly working on the basis of the reports of the Ad Hoc Committee (see resolutions 32/147 of 16 December 1977, 34/145 of 17 December 1979, 36/109 of 10 December 1981, 38/130 of 19 December 1983, 40/61 of 9 December 1985, 42/159 of 7 December 1987, 44/29 of 4 December 1989 and 46/51 of 9 December 1991). As of 1987, the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly referred to the idea of convening, under the auspices of the United Nations, an international conference to define terrorism and to differentiate it from the struggle of peoples for national liberation. As of 1991, the title of the corresponding item was shortened to “Measures to eliminate international terrorism”.  In 1993, the General Assembly decided to include the item in the provisional agenda of its forty-ninth session, without prejudice to the question of whether the item will thereafter be considered annually or biennially (see decision 48/411 of 9 December 1993).

At the forty-eighth session of the General Assembly, the item was again allocated to the Sixth Committee, which considered it on 14 and from 19 to 21 October and on 23 November 1994.  On 19 October 1993, the Sixth Committee decided that its Rapporteur would chair informal consultations to elaborate a draft declaration on measures to eliminate international terrorism (see the report of the Sixth Committee to the General Assembly, A/49/743, para. 5).  At the conclusion of its debate, on 23 November, the Sixth Committee adopted a draft resolution, proposed by its Chairman, by which the General Assembly was to approve a declaration annexed to that draft (ibid., para. 10). On 9 December 1994, the General Assembly, on the recommendation of the Sixth Committee, adopted without a vote resolution 49/60, by which it approved the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, the text of which was annexed to that resolution. In the same resolution, the General Assembly invited the Secretary-General to follow up closely the implementation of the resolution and the Declaration, and to submit to it at its fiftieth session a report thereon, relating, in particular, to the modalities of implementation of paragraph 10 of the Declaration.

At its fiftieth session, in 1995, the General Assembly took up the item again in the context of the Sixth Committee, which had before it the report of the Secretary-General requested in resolution 49/60(A/50/372 and Add.1). In resolution 50/53 of 11 December 1995, the General Assembly again requested the Secretary-General to follow up closely the implementation of the Declaration and to submit an annual report on the implementation of paragraph 10 of the Declaration.

At its fifty-first session, following the consideration, in the context of the Sixth Committee, of the report of the Secretary-General requested in resolution 50/53 (A/51/336 and Add.1), the General Assembly adopted resolution 51/210 of 17 December 1996, in which it reaffirmed the 1994 Declaration and approved the Declaration to Supplement the 1994 Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, the text of which was annexed to that resolution.  By that same resolution, the General Assembly also established an Ad Hoc Committee, open to all States Members of the United Nations or members of specialized agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency, to elaborate an international convention for the suppression of terrorist bombings and, subsequently, an international convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism, to supplement related existing international instruments, and thereafter to address means of further developing a comprehensive legal framework of conventions dealing with international terrorism.

In the following years and up to the present (October 2008), the item “Measures to eliminate international terrorism” has been annually included in the agenda of the General Assembly and has been considered in the context of the Sixth Committee.  It is under this item that the 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, the 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and the 2005 International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism were adopted.  Work on a draft comprehensive convention on international terrorism is ongoing (October 2008).


Text of the Declaration
Text of the Supplementary Declaration

Selected preparatory documents
(in chronological order)

Note by the Secretary-General, Request for the inclusion of an additional item in the agenda of the twenty-seventh session, "Measures to prevent terrorism and other forms of violence which endanger or take innocent lives or jeopardize fundamental freedoms" (A/8791, 8 September 1972, Corr.1 and Add.1, 20 September 1972)

General Assembly, Verbatim Record of 2037th plenary meeting held on 23 September 1972 (A/PV.2037)

General Assembly resolution 3034 (XXVII) of 18 December 1972 (Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes)

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on international terrorism (A/9028, 16 July to 11 August 1973)

General Assembly resolution 31/102 of 15 December 1976 (Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes)

General Assembly resolution 32/147 of 16 December 1977 (Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes)

General Assembly resolution 34/145 of 17 December 1979 (Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes)

General Assembly resolution 36/109 of 10 December 1981 (Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes)

General Assembly resolution 38/130 of 19 December 1983 (Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes)

General Assembly resolution 40/61 of 9 December 1985 (Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes)

General Assembly resolution 42/159 of 7 December 1987 (Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes: (a) Report of the Secretary-General; (b) Convening, under the auspices of the United Nations, of an international conference to define terrorism and to differentiate it from the struggle of people for national liberation)

General Assembly resolution 44/29 of 4 December 1989 (Measures to prevent international terrorism which endangers or takes innocent human lives or jeopardizes fundamental freedoms, and study of the underlying causes of those forms of terrorism and acts of violence which lie in misery, frustration, grievance and despair and which cause some people to sacrifice human lives, including their own, in an attempt to effect radical changes: (a) Report of the Secretary-General; (b) Convening, under the auspices of the United Nations, of an international conference to define terrorism and to differentiate it from the struggle of people for national liberation)

General Assembly resolution 46/51 of 9 December 1991 (Measures to eliminate international terrorism)

General Assembly decision 48/411 of 9 December 1993 (Measures to eliminate international terrorism)

Report of the Sixth Committee, "Measures to eliminate international terrorism" (A/49/743, 2 December 1994).

General Assembly resolution 49/60 of 9 December 1994 (Measures to eliminate international terrorism)

Report of the Secretary-General, “Measures to eliminate international terrorism” (A/50/372, 24 August 1995 and Add.1, 26 September 1995)

General Assembly resolution 50/53 of 11 December 1995 (Measures to eliminate international terrorism)

Report of the Secretary-General “Measures to eliminate international terrorism” (A/51/336, 6 September 1996 and Add.1, 18 October 1996)

General Assembly resolution 51/210 of 17 December 1996 (Measures to eliminate international terrorism)

Statements
Forty-ninth Session of the General Assembly, 84th Plenary Meeting, 9 December 1994: Measures to eliminate international terrorism, adoption of Resolution 49/60
Video (13 minutes, Full version)
Play Statement by the President of the General Assembly, Mr. Essy (Côte d’Ivoire) Resolution 49/60 is adopted by the General Assembly without a vote.
Video (56 seconds, English interpretation)
Play Statement by Mr. Odevall (Sweden), speaking on behalf of the Nordic countries Explanation of vote
Video (1 minute, English)
Play Statement by Ms. Fernandez de Gurmendi (Argentina)
Explanation of vote
Video (1 minute, English interpretation)
Play Statement by Mr. Hallak (Syrian Arab Republic)
Explanation of vote
Video (2 minutes, English interpretation)
Play Statement by Mr. Martens (Germany), speaking on behalf of the European Union and the acceding State Austria
Explanation of vote
Video (3 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Strauss (Canada)
Explanation of vote
Video (40 seconds, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Hammi (Algeria)
Explanation of vote
Video (4 minutes, English interpretation)