Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
Vienna, 22 March 1985

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Montreal, 16 September 1987
  •  Introductory Note 
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By Edith Brown Weiss*
Francis Cabell Brown Professor of International Law
Georgetown University Law Center

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In 1974 scientists published their first scientific hypotheses that chemicals we produced could harm the stratospheric ozone layer. The ozone layer protects the earth against excessive ultraviolet radiation, which could cause damage and mutations in human, plant, and animal cells. The scientists found that the chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFCs), which were widely used and viewed as posing no harm, could migrate to the stratosphere, remain intact for decades to centuries, and by releasing chlorine, break down the ozone layer.

In 1977 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) concluded a World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer, which called for intensive international research and monitoring of the ozone layer, and in 1981, UNEP’s Governing Council authorized UNEP to draft a global framework convention on stratospheric ozone protection.  The Vienna Convention, concluded in 1985, is a framework agreement in which States agree to cooperate in relevant research and scientific assessments of the ozone problem, to exchange information, and to adopt “appropriate measures” to prevent activities that harm the ozone layer. The obligations are general and contain no specific limits on chemicals that deplete the ozone layer.

During the Vienna Convention negotiations, countries discussed a possible protocol that would provide specific targets for certain chemicals, but no consensus was reached.  The UNEP regional seas agreements had provided a precedent in which States negotiated a framework convention and at least one protocol, which countries were required to ratify at the time they joined the convention.  The Vienna Convention went forward on its own, however, and was opened for signature in March, 1985. A working group under UNEP began negotiations on a protocol, and the Montreal Protocol was concluded in September, 1987, only nine months after the formal diplomatic negotiations opened in December, 1986.  It went into effect on January 1, 1989. A State must be party to the Vienna Convention in order to become a party to the Montreal Protocol.  The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol established the precedent in UNEP for completing a framework agreement, followed later by one or more Protocols. This precedent has been used frequently since then, as in the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

The ozone agreements are remarkable, in that they are the first to address a long-term problem in which the cause of the damage occurs today, but the effects are not evident for decades hence.  Decisions were taken on the basis of probabilities, since damage had not yet occurred.  Since scientific understanding of the problem would change, the agreements needed to be flexible and capable of being adapted to accommodate new scientific assessments. No single country or group of countries could address the problem of ozone depletion alone, so maximum international cooperation was needed.

The Montreal Protocol reflects a convergence of interest of scientists who warned of growing threats to the ozone layer, private industry that wanted a level playing field as companies responded to new national legislation controlling the harmful chemicals, nongovernmental organizations advocating environmental protection, and national governments that increasingly saw an international agreement as in their own best interests.

The Montreal Protocol controls the production and consumption of specific chemicals, none of which occur naturally: CFCs, halons, fully Halogenated CFCs (HCFCs), methyl bromide, and similar chemicals. It sets specific targets for reduction and a timetable for doing so.  The Protocol originally required parties other than developing countries to freeze consumption and production of CFCs at 1986 levels (the base year), to reduce them by 20 percent and then an additional 30 percent by 1999, and to freeze consumption of halons at 1986 levels. The formula of targets and timetables has been subsequently employed in other international agreements controlling air pollutants and in the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

During the Protocol negotiations, there was controversy as to whether to base the targets on consumption or production of the chemicals.  The CFC industry was concentrated, with the major companies in the United States, the European Community, and Japan.  In contrast, consumption of the chemicals was diffuse around the world.  Although both the United States and the European Community were large producers of CFCs, only the latter was a large net exporter.  Thus, the European Community argued for a production-based control system, while the United States argued for a consumption-based one.  The formula adopted in the Protocol equates consumption to production minus exports plus imports of the controlled chemicals. Countries must report annually on their consumption of the controlled chemicals.

Anticipating changes in scientific knowledge about the ozone layer and emergence of new problems in implementing the Protocol, negotiators included several provisions to provide flexibility.  The first is for Technology and Economic Assessment Panels, which provide regular expert assessments.  The second is for differentiated procedures for altering the obligations to control substances: namely by adjustments and by amendments. In the adjustment process, parties may adjust the targets and timetables for phasing out chemicals that are already listed without having to go through a formal amendment process.  Adjustments become effective six months after parties receive formal notice and bind all countries party to the Protocol. A formal amendment is required to add new chemicals to the list of controlled substances. In contrast to the adjustment process, amendments bind only those countries that ratify them.  As a result, different states are bound by different obligations.  Countries joining the agreement after an amendment goes into effect assume the obligations as of that date, but must ratify any future amendment for it to bind them.

There have been four Amendments to the Protocol: the London, Copenhagen, Montreal, and Beijing Amendments.  The 1990 London Amendment provided for an Interim Multilateral Fund to provide assistance to qualifying developing countries, for noncompliance procedures, for the addition of new chemicals to the list of controlled chemicals, and for other miscellaneous changes.  Parties treated the London Amendments as a package, which countries had to accept or reject in whole. This was a critical decision for the effectiveness of the Protocol, because it meant that parties could not  agree to add certain chemicals, but not accept the new funding mechanism for developing countries, or vice versa.  In the 1992 Copenhagen Amendments, parties made the Interim Multilateral Fund permanent and put additional chemicals under control, including methyl bromide and the HCFCs.  The 1997 Montreal Amendment obligated countries to establish and implement a licensing system for the import and export of new, used, recycled and reclaimed controlled substances, and to control trade in the banned substances by parties not in compliance with the Protocol.  The 1999 Beijing Amendment provided for a “basic domestic needs” exception for certain controlled chemicals and added bromochloromethane to the list of controlled substances.  Since the Protocol went into effect, adjustments have also been made to the timetable for phasing out listed chemicals. For example, in 1990, States parties agreed to phase out those CFCs listed in 1987 by the year 2000 and to phase out halons except for certain essential uses.

Since the ozone depleting substances regulated under the Protocol are also potent greenhouse gases, the Protocol has contributed to mitigating climate change.  However, the ban on CFCs has led to some substitution of HCFCs for these chemicals; HCFCs are controlled but not banned under the Protocol. This lessens to some extent the Protocol’s effect on climate change.

The Protocol makes special provisions for certain countries. Article V gives qualifying developing countries a ten year delay in complying with targets and timetables, a separate consumption limit of 0.3 kilogram per capita, and access to the Montreal Protocol Fund to assist with compliance costs.  Article 2(6) was intended to attract countries such as the former Soviet Union to join the Protocol, in that it lets a country add facilities under construction or contracted for prior to September 1987 to its base level for calculating its compliance with base year production.  The Protocol also provides for “industrial rationalization” in that a party can transfer part of its calculated level of production of controlled chemicals to another party. This was not intended for transfers between developed and developing countries.

To make the Protocol effective, countries prohibited exports and imports of controlled substances with countries not party to the Protocol.  In a second stage, the trade ban would extend to products containing a controlled substance, and in a third stage to products produced with the substances. The last has been dropped from the agenda.  During the negotiations, countries were concerned that these provisions might violate the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).  To assuage such concerns, Article 4(8) permits trade with countries who are not parties but comply with the Protocol, although this requires a decision of the parties that the nonparty is in compliance.

One of the most significant innovations of the Protocol is the process established to address problems of noncompliance. Parties established an Implementation Committee to review annual reports from parties and developed a suite of measures that could be used in case of noncompliance, including technical assistance to enable the country to comply.  This precedent has been widely followed in other environmental agreements, such as the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and its Protocols, the UN ECE Åarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol have been quite successful as of 2009 in addressing the global problem of stratospheric ozone layer depletion. However, problems have arisen in implementing the Protocol, especially in the illegal trade in controlled substances, in the management of the large stockpiles of controlled substances, and in the elimination of certain substances, such as methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, and the HCFCs.

__________________________
* Based in part on Edith Brown Weiss, “The Five International Treaties: A Living History,” ENGAGING COUNTRIES: STRENGTHENING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ACCORDS (E. Brown Weiss and H.K. Jacobson, eds, MIT Press, 1998).


Related Materials

A. Legal instruments

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Geneva, 30 October 1947, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 55, p. 187.

Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, Geneva, 13 November 1979, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol.1302, p. 217.

Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, London, 29 June 1990, Annex II of the Report of the Second Meeting (UNEP/OzL.Pro.2/3).

Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Copenhagen, 15 November 1992, Annex III of the Report of the Fourth Meeting (UNEP/OzL.Pro.4/15).

Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer adopted by the Ninth Meeting of the Parties, Montreal, 17 September 1997, UNEP/OzL.Pro.9/12, Annex IV of the Report of the Ninth Meeting of the Parties.

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto, 11 December 1997, Treaty Series, vol. 2303, p.148.

Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, Aarhus, Denmark, 25 June 1998, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2161, p. 447.

Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Beijing, 3 December 1999, C.N.1231.1999.TREATIES-1 of 28 January 2000 and C.N.13.2004.TREATIES.

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, 29 January 2000, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2226, p.208.

B. Documents

World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer (1977), Environmental Assessment, United Nations Environment Programme: compendium of legislative authority, 1972-1977 (UNEP/GC/DEC/5/84).

C. Doctrine

M. Arribas, J.J., “La Degradacion de la Capa de Ozono: Un Enorme Desafio para la Comunidad Internacional, Revista Española de Derecho Internacional, vol. 46, 1997, pp. 533-556.

J. S. Bales, “Transnational Responsibility and Recourse for Ozone Depletion”, Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, vol. 19, 1996, p. 259.

G. M. Bankobeza, Ozone Protection: The International Legal Regime, Eleven International Publishing, Utrecht (Netherlands), 2005.

R. E. Benedick, Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1991.

R. E. Benedick, Comment, “The Montreal Ozone Treaty: Implications for Global Warming”, American University Journal of International Law and Policy, vol. 5, 1989-1990, p. 227.

E. Brown Weiss & H. K. Jacobson (eds.), Engaging Countries: strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, 1998.

D. S. Bryk, “The Montreal Protocol and Recent Developments to Protect the Ozone Layer”, Harvard Environmental Law Review, vol. 15, 1991, p. 275.

E. R. DeSombre, “The Experience of the Montreal Protocol: Particularly Remarkable, and Remarkably Particular”, UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000-2002, p. 49.

A. Gallagher, “New Montreal Protocol and the Future of International Law for Protection of the Global Environment”, Houston Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 14, 1991-1992, p. 267.

D. Hurlbut, “Beyond the Montreal Protocol: Impact on Nonparty States and Lessons for Future Environmental Protection Regimes”, Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 4, 1993, p. 344.

T. T. Jones, “Implementation of the Montreal Protocol: Barriers, Constraints and Opportunities”, Environmental Law, vol. 3, 1996-1997, p. 813.

D. Kaniaru (ed.), The Montreal Protocol: Celebrating 20 Years of Environmental Progress: Ozone Layer and Climate Protection, Cameron May Ltd., London, 2007.

W. Lang, “Is the Ozone Depletion Regime a Model for an Emerging Regime on Global Warming?”, UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 9, 1990-1991, p. 161.

W. Lang, “Compliance-Control in Respect of the Montreal Protocol”, American Society of International Law Proceedings, vol. 89, 1995, p. 206.

P. M. Lawrence, “International Legal Regulation for Protection of the Ozone Layer: Some Problems of Implementation”, Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 2, 1990, p. 17.

J. A. Mintz, Comment, “Progress Toward a Healthy Sky: An Assessment of the London Amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer”, Yale Journal of International Law, vol. 16, 1991, p. 571.

E. Mossos, “The Montreal Protocol and the Difficultly with International Change”, Albany Law Environmental Outlook, vol.10, 2005, p. 1.

H. Ott, “The New Montreal Protocol: A Small Step for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, A Big Step for International Law and Relations”, Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America, vol. 24, 1991, pp. 188-208.

P. M. Posse, “Tratamiento de la Problematica del Ozono y de Las Emisiones de Cloro-fluro Carbonados en la Legislacion Internacional - la Convencion de Vienna y el Protocolo de Montreal”, Tribunale dell’ Ambiente, 1989, pp. 181-192.

J. T. B. Tripp, “The UNEP Montreal Protocol: Industrialized and Developing Countries Sharing the Responsibility for Protecting the Stratospheric Ozone Layer”, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, vol. 20, 1987-1988, p. 733.

O. Yoshida, “Soft Enforcement of Treaties: The Montreal Protocol’s Noncompliance Procedure and the Functions of Internal International Institutions”, Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 10, 1999, p. 95.


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Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

At its ninth session, the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme adopted decision 9/13B of 26 May 1981 by which, recognizing the desirability of initiating work aimed at the elaboration of a global framework convention which would cover monitoring, scientific research and the development of best available and economically feasible technologies to limit and gradually reduce emissions of ozone-depleting substances, as well as the development of appropriate strategies and policies, it decided to initiate work aimed at the elaboration of such a convention. The Governing Council further decided to this end to establish an Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Elaboration of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer which should report, through the Executive Director, to the Governing Council on the progress of its work (see Report of the Governing Council, A/36/25).

On 13 January 1982, the Secretariat of the United Nations Environment Programme issued a paper for the Ad Hoc Working Group (UNEP/WG.69/8) entitled “Some observations on the preparation of a global framework convention for the protection of the stratospheric ozone layer.”  In this paper, reference was made inter alia to relevant recommendations and input of the Ad Hoc Meeting of Senior Government Officials Expert in Environmental Law  (held in Montevideo, 28 October to 6 November 1981) (UNEP/WG.69/8, paras. 7, 8, 36 and 37), the Co-ordinating Committee on the Ozone Layer (UNEP/WG.69/8, paras. 3, 8, 15 and 33) as well as to the documents submitted by the delegations of Finland, Sweden, Switzerland and Norway (UNEP/WG.69/8, paras. 9, 36, and 42), including a draft International Convention for the Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer (UNEP/WG.69/3).

The Ad Hoc Working Group, which met in Stockholm from 20 to 28 January 1982, had before it the draft text of the global framework convention. In its report, the Ad Hoc Working Group formulated recommendations for its future work, which included preparations of a revised text of the draft convention based on the comments and proposals made during its first meeting (UNEP/WG.69/10, p.11, para. 36).

The Ad Hoc Working Group met between 1982 and 1985 and issued several reports on its work (UNEP/WG.69/10; UNEP/WG.78/8; UNEP/WG.78/13; UNEP/WG/94/3; UNEP/WG.94/5; UNEP/WG.94/10; UNEP/WG.110/4; and UNEP/IG.53/4). At these sessions, the Ad Hoc Working Group considered three revised texts of the draft convention (UNEP/WG.94/3; UNEP/WG.94/8; UNEP/WG.94/11). By Governing Council decision 12/14 of 28 May 1984, the Council requested its Executive Director to convene another session of the Ad Hoc Working Group in order to complete work on the convention, and to ensure that any report from the Working Group was brought to the attention of a diplomatic conference to be convened in 1985 for the finalization, adoption and signature of the convention. The final fifth draft of the convention was subsequently submitted to the Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Protection of the Ozone Layer (see Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group, UNEP/IG.53/3) which was held at Vienna from 18 to 22 March 1985.

The Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was adopted by the Conference on the Protection of the Ozone Layer and was opened for signature at Vienna on 22 March 1985 and remained open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York until 21 March 1986. The Convention entered into force on 22 September 1988, in accordance with article 17.

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

In November 1982, the Secretariat of the United Nations Environment Programme prepared a paper for the Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Elaboration of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer which outlined alternative structures for protocols or annexes to the draft convention (UNEP/WG.78/3 and UNEP/WG.78/11). Subsequently, Finland, Norway and Sweden submitted a draft annex concerning measures to control, limit and reduce the use and emissions of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons for the protection of the ozone layer (UNEP/WG.94/4), which, as revised, accepted the codification of the proposed control measures in the form of a protocol and not, as previously envisaged, in an annex (UNEP/WG.94/5, paras. 9 and 41). A revised text of the draft protocol was accordingly submitted to the Ad Hoc Working Group (UNEP/WG.94/9). The draft protocol was further revised in the following sessions of the Ad Hoc Working Group (UNEP/WG.94/12, WG.110/CRP.1 and UNEP/IG.53/4, Annex III).

On 24 May 1985, the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme adopted decision 13/18 by which it requested the Executive Director, on the basis of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group, to convene a new Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Preparation of the Protocol on Chlorofluorocarbons to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The Governing Council mandated the newly established Ad Hoc Working Group to continue work on a protocol that addresses strategies for the equitable control of the global production, emissions and use of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons, taking into account the particular situation of developing countries as well as recent scientific and economic research. By the same decision, the Governing Council authorized the Executive Director, pending the entry into force of the Vienna Convention on the Ozone Layer, to convene a diplomatic conference, if possible in 1987, for the purpose of adopting such a protocol. As a result of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group, a diplomatic conference was convened at Montreal which, on 16 September 1987, adopted the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The Protocol entered into force on 1 January 1989.


Text of the Convention
Text of the Protocol

Selected preparatory documents
(in chronological order)

United Nations Environment Programme, Governing Council decision 9/13B of 26 May 1981 (Protection of the ozone layer) (A/36/25, May 1981)

United Nations Environment Programme, Draft International Convention for the Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer, submitted by Finland and Sweden (UNEP/WG.69/3, 1 January 1982)

United Nations Environment Programme, Paper prepared by the Secretariat entitled “Some Observations on the Preparation of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer” (UNEP/WG.69/8, 13 January 1982)

United Nations Environment Programme, Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Elaboration of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer on its first session (UNEP/WG.69/10, 1 February 1982)

United Nations Environment Programme, Governing Council decision 10/21 of 31 May 1982 (Protection of the ozone layer) (A/37/25, May 1982)

United Nations Environment Programme, Alternative structures and formats for technical annexes and/or protocols relevant to the draft convention for the protection of the ozone layer (UNEP/WG.78/3)

United Nations Environment Programme, Institutional Arrangements for a Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Second Session of the Ad Hoc Working Group, held in Geneva from 2 to 11 November 1982 (UNEP/WG.78/4, 6 September 1982)

United Nations Environment Programme, Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Elaboration of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer on its second session (UNEP/WG.78/8, 5 January 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Revised draft Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, with additional commentary, prepared by the Secretariat of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP/WG.78/10, 9 February 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Possible contents of annexes, and/or protocols (UNEP/WG.78/11, 5 April 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Governing Council decision 11/7 of 24 May 1983 (Programme matters, Part two: Environment and Development, B. Environmental Law, I Protection of the ozone layer) (A/38/25, May 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Elaboration of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer on the second part of its second session (UNEP/WG.78/13, 17 June 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Second revised Draft Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, With Additional Commentary (UNEP/WG.94/3, 30 July 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Draft Annex Concerning Measures to Control, Limit and Reduce the Use and Emissions of Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, submitted by Finland, Norway and Sweden (UNEP/WG.94/4, 3 August 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Draft Annex Concerning Measures to Control, Limit and Reduce the Use and Emissions of Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, submitted by Finland, Norway and Sweden (UNEP/WG.94/4/Add.1, 15 September 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Draft Annex Concerning Measures to Control, Limit and Reduce the Use and Emissions of Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, submitted by Finland, Norway and Sweden (UNEP/WG.94/4/Add.2, 14 October 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Draft Annex Concerning Measures to Control, Limit and Reduce the Use and Emissions of Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, submitted by Finland, Norway and Sweden (UNEP/WG.94/4/Add.3 and UNEP/WG.94/4/Add.4, 17 October 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Elaboration of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer on the first part of its third session (UNEP/WG.94/5, 10 November 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Revised draft Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (UNEP/WG.94/8, 18 November 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Revised draft Protocol Concerning Measures to Control, Limit, and Reduce the Emission of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (UNEP/WG.94/9, 14 November 1983)

United Nations Environment Programme, Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Elaboration of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer on the second part of its third session (UNEP/WG.94/10, 13 February 1984)

United Nations Environment Programme, Revised draft Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (UNEP/WG.94/11, 13 February 1984)

United Nations Environment Programme, Revised draft Protocol Concerning Measures to Control, Limit and Reduce the Emissions of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (UNEP/WG.94/12, 13 February 1984)

United Nations Environment Programme, Governing Council decision 12/14 of 28 May 1984 (Protection of the ozone layer) (A/39/25, May 1984)

United Nations Environment Programme, Summary of comments received from Governments on the fourth draft convention and second revised draft protocol (UNEP/WG.110/2, 3 August 1984)

United Nations Environment Programme, Revised draft Protocol on Chlorofluorocarbons, submitted by Canada, Norway, Sweden and the United States of America (WG.110/CRP.1, 22 October 1984)

United Nations Environment Programme, Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Elaboration of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer on the work of the first part of its fourth session (UNEP/WG.110/4, 9 November 1984)

United Nations Environment Programme, Revised draft Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (UNEP/IG.53/3)

United Nations Environment Programme, Report of the Ad-Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts for the Elaboration of a Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Vienna, 18‑22 March 1985 (UNEP/IG.53/4, 28 January 1985)

United Nations Environment Programme, Governing Council decision 13/18 of 24 May 1985 (Environmental Law) (A/40/25, May 1985)


Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

The Convention entered into force on 22 September 1988. For the current participation status of the Convention, as well as information and relevant texts of related treaty actions, such as reservations, declarations, objections, denunciations and notifications, see:

The Status of Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

The Convention entered into force on 1 January 1989. For the current participation status of the Convention, as well as information and relevant texts of related treaty actions, such as reservations, declarations, objections, denunciations and notifications, see:

The Status of Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General

Statements
Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Protocol on Chloroflourocarbons to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Montreal, 16 September 1987
Video (16 minutes 30 seconds, English, Full version)
Play
Play Statement by the head of the host delegation
Video (2 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Dr. Mostafa K. Tolba, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme
Video (4 minutes 30 seconds, English)
Play Signing Ceremony of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Video (10 minutes, English)
Interview with Mr. Peter Usher, United Nations Environment Programme - Expert on atmostpheric matters
Video (6 minutes 20 seconds, English, Full version)
Play
Interview with Mr. Federico Panier (Venezuela)
Video (6 minutes 15 seconds, Español, Full version)
Play
Press Conference with Dr. Mostafa K. Tolba, Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme
Video (9 minutes 40 seconds, English, Full version)
Play
24 September 2003, Accession of Jamaica  to the amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone  Layer, 1997 and 1999, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Mr. K.D. Knight (seated), Minister  for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica depositing the instrument of ratification of the amendments to the Protocol;  to his right is Mr. Hans Corell, Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and  Legal Counsel. 10 January 2007, Accession of Singapore to the amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1999, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Mr. Vanu Gopala Menon (Singapore), depositing the instrument of ratification. 14 September 2007, Accession of Honduras to the amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1997 and 1999, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Mr. Ivan Romero-Martinez (Honduras), depositing the instrument of ratification to Ms. Annebeth Rosenboom, Chief of the Treaty Section.  

24 September 2003
Accession of Jamaica to the amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1997 and 1999, United Nations Headquarters,
New York
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10 January 2007
Accession of Singapore to the amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1999,
United Nations Headquarters,
New York
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14 September 2007
Accession of Honduras to the amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1997 and 1999, United Nations Headquarters,
New York
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