Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid
New York, 30 November 1973
  •  Introductory Note 
  •  Procedural History 
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By John Dugard
Professor of International Law
Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, Leiden University

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The Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid (hereinafter Apartheid Convention) has it roots in the opposition of the United Nations to the discriminatory racial policies of the South African Government – known as apartheid – which lasted from 1948 to 1990. Apartheid was annually condemned by the General Assembly as contrary to Articles 55 and 56 of the Charter of the United Nations from 1952 until 1990; and was regularly condemned by the Security Council after 1960. In 1966, the General Assembly labelled apartheid as a crime against humanity (resolution 2202 A (XXI) of 16 December 1966) and in 1984 the Security Council endorsed this determination (resolution 556 (1984) of 23 October 1984). The Apartheid Convention was the ultimate step in the condemnation of apartheid as it not only declared that apartheid was unlawful because it violated the Charter of the United Nations, but in addition it declared apartheid to be criminal. The Apartheid Convention was adopted by the General Assembly on 30 November 1973, by 91 votes in favour, four against (Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States) and 26 abstentions. It came into force on 18 July 1976. As of August 2008, it has been ratified by 107 States.

1 May 1969, Apartheid in South Africa: the segregated stands of a sports arena in Bloemfontein, South AfricaWhen the Apartheid Convention was being drafted in the Third Committee of the General Assembly there was a division of opinion over the scope of the Convention. Most delegates saw the Convention as an instrument to be employed only against South Africa. Others, however, warned that the Convention was wide enough to cover other States that practised racial discrimination (Twenty-eighth session of the General Assembly, Summary record of the 2004th meeting of the Third Committee, held on 23 October 1973, (A/C.3/SR.2004), paragraph 4)).

The Apartheid Convention declares that apartheid is a crime against humanity and that “inhuman acts resulting from the policies and practices of apartheid and similar policies and practices of racial segregation and discrimination” are international crimes (art. 1). Article 2 defines the crime of apartheid –“which shall include similar policies and practices of racial segregation and discrimination as practised in southern Africa” – as covering “inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group of persons and systematically oppressing them”. It then lists the acts that fall within the ambit of the crime. These include murder, torture, inhuman treatment and arbitrary arrest of members of a racial group; deliberate imposition on a racial group of living conditions calculated to cause its physical destruction; legislative measures that discriminate in the political, social, economic and cultural fields; measures that divide the population along racial lines by the creation of separate residential areas for racial groups; the prohibition of interracial marriages; and the persecution of persons opposed to apartheid.

International criminal responsibility is to apply to individuals, members of organizations and representatives of the State who commit, incite or conspire to commit the crime of apartheid (art. 3).

Although consideration was given in 1980 to the establishment of a special international criminal court to try persons for the crime of apartheid (E/CN.4/1426 (1981)), no such court was established. Instead it was left to States to enact legislation to enable them to prosecute apartheid criminals on the basis of a form of universal jurisdiction. The Apartheid Convention allows State parties to prosecute non-nationals for a crime committed in the territory of a non-State party where the accused is physically within the jurisdiction of a State party (arts. 4 and 5).

No one was prosecuted for the crime of apartheid while apartheid lasted in South Africa. And no one has since been prosecuted for the crime. Apartheid was abandoned in 1990 by the regime that had introduced it and in 1994 a democratic South Africa came into being as a result of a peaceful negotiated settlement between the apartheid regime and movements opposed to apartheid. Consequently, there were no prosecutions of the leaders or agents of the apartheid regime for crimes of apartheid.  Instead a Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established with the tasks of achieving reconciliation and supervising the granting of amnesty to those who had committed serious violations of human rights during the apartheid years. Significantly, post-apartheid South Africa has not become a party to the Apartheid Convention.

That the Apartheid Convention is intended to apply to situations other than South Africa is confirmed by its endorsement in a wider context in instruments adopted before and after the fall of apartheid. In 1977, Additional Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions of 1949 recognized apartheid as a “grave breach” of the Protocol (art. 85, paragraph 4 (c)) without any geographical limitation. Apartheid features as a crime in the Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind adopted by the International Law Commission on first reading in 1991 without any reference to South Africa and in 1996 the Draft Code adopted on second reading recognized institutionalized racial discrimination as species of crime against humanity in article 18 (f) and explained in its commentary that this “is in fact the crime of apartheid under a more general denomination”(Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its forty-eighth session (A/51/10), p. 49). In 1998, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court included the “crime of apartheid” as a form of crime against humanity (art. 7). It may be concluded that the Apartheid Convention is dead as far as the original cause for its creation – apartheid in South Africa – is concerned, but that it lives on as a species of the crime against humanity, under both customary international law and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

Related Materials

A. Legal Instruments


Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1125, p. 3.

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Rome, 17 July 1998, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2187, p. 3.

B. Documents

Study on ways and means of insuring the implementation of international instruments such as the Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, including the establishment of international jurisdiction envisaged by the Convention, 19 January 1981 (E/CN.4/1426).

Third Committee of the General Assembly, Summary record of meeting No. 2004, held on 23 October 1973, (A/C.3/SR.2004), paragraph 4.

Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its forty-third session, 29 April - 19 July 1991 (A/46/10).

Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act, No. 34 of 1995, establishing the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa.

Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its forty-eighth session, 6 May - 26 July 1996 (A/51/10).

C. Doctrine

M.C. Bassiouni & D. Derby, “Final Report on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court for the Implementation of the Apartheid Convention and Other Relevant International Instruments”, Hofstra Law Review, vol. 9, 1981, p. 523.

H. Booysen, “Convention on the Crime of Apartheid”, South African Yearbook of International Law, vol. 2, 1976, p. 56.

R.S. Clark, “The Crime of Apartheid” in International Criminal Law (ed. M.C. Bassiouni) vol. 1 (Crimes), Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., Transnational Press, 1986, p. 299.

J. Dugard, “L’Apartheid” in Droit International Pénal (eds. H. Ascensio, E. Decaux & A. Pellet), Paris, A. Pedone, 2000, p. 349.


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26 October 1973, View of the meeting of the Third Committee during one of the votes on the draft Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid.At the twenty-sixth session of the General Assembly, during the discussion of the item entitled “International Year for Action to Combat Racism and racial discrimination”, Guinea and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) submitted a draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid (A/C.3/L.1871) to the Assembly’s Third (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) Committee, on 5 November 1971. Following the debate in the Third Committee (A/C.3/SR.1859-1863), the General Assembly, by resolution 2786 (XXVI) of 6 December 1971, invited the Secretary-General to transmit the draft convention, together with the relevant records of the debate, to the Commission on Human Rights. It also recommended that the Commission and the Economic and Social Council should consider this item as a matter of priority, in cooperation with the Special Committee of Apartheid (which had been established by resolution 1761 (XVII) of the General Assembly on 6 November 1962 to keep racial policies of the Government of South Africa under review when the Assembly is not in session).

The Economic and Social Council decided, on 6 January 1972, to transmit the above-mentioned resolution of the General Assembly to the Commission on Human Rights. The Commission considered the item at its twenty-eighth session, during the same year, and, following a discussion on different draft resolutions proposed by Member States, adopted resolution 4 (XXVIII) on 23 March 1972, by which it requested the Secretary-General to circulate inter alia the text of the draft convention to Governments for their views, invited the Special Committee on Apartheid to consider the draft and requested the Economic and Social Council to invite the General Assembly to give priority to the question of the adoption of an international instrument on the topic at its following session. The Economic and Social Council, by resolution 1696 (LII) of 2 June 1972, requested the General Assembly to consider this question.

At the twenty-seventh session, in 1972, the item was again referred to the Third Committee of the General Assembly for consideration. On 24 October 1972, a revised draft convention was submitted to the Third Committee by Guinea, Nigeria and the USSR (A/C.3/L.1942/Rev.1). Following the discussion at the Third Committee, the General Assembly adopted resolution 2922 (XXVII) of 15 November 1972, by which it requested the Secretary-General to transmit to the Special Committee on Apartheid and to States the revised draft convention submitted by Guinea, Nigeria and the USSR, and the amendments thereto submitted by Egypt, as reproduced in the report of the Third Committee (A/8880, paras. 42 and 43) for their comments and views. It also invited the Economic and Social Council to ask the Commission on Human Rights to consider at its following session, as a matter of priority, the revised version of the draft convention.

On 10 January 1973, the Economic and Social Council decided to transmit the Assembly’s request to the Commission on Human Rights, asking it to submit the results of its consideration to the Assembly.

The Commission on Human Rights examined the revised draft convention, together with amendments thereto and comments received from 29 Governments (A/8768 and Add.1; E/CN.4/1123 and Add.1-6), at its twenty-ninth session in February-April 1973. After a debate held from 5 to 7 March of the same year, the Commission agreed to set up a working group composed of Bulgaria, Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, India, the Philippines, Senegal, the USSR and Zaire to consider the revised draft convention.  On 2 April 1973, having heard the report of the working group (E/CN.4/L.1252), the Commission adopted resolution 16 (XXIX), by which it approved a preamble and the articles, excluding article VIII, of the draft convention and recommended that the Economic and Social Council also approve it and, in turn, recommend its approval by the General Assembly.

On 10 May 1973, the Economic and Social Council’s Social Committee approved the draft resolution and recommended the Council to approve it as well. The Council did so on 18 May 1973, by resolution 1784 (LIV), in which it recommended that the General Assembly approve the draft text proposed by the Commission on Human Rights at its following session.

Pursuant to the General Assembly’s request contained in resolution 2922 (XXVII), the Special Committee on Apartheid gave its comments on the draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid in its annual report submitted to the Assembly (A/9022, p. 27).

At the twenty-eighth session of the General Assembly, the item “Draft Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid” was allocated to the Third Committee, which considered it from 22 to 26 October 1973. The Committee approved the draft convention as a whole on 26 October 1973 (A/9095 and Add.1) and submitted a report to the General Assembly (A/9233 and Adds.1 to 3) by which it recommended to the Assembly a draft resolution, to which was annexed the draft international convention.

As recommended by the Third Committee, on 30 November 1973, the General Assembly adopted, by a vote of 91 to 4, with 26 abstentions, resolution 3068 (XXVIII), by which it adopted and opened for signature the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, the text of which was annexed to the resolution.  The Convention entered into force, in accordance with its article XV, on 18 July 1976, following the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification.


Text of the Convention

Selected preparatory documents
(in chronological order)

Guinea and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Draft of a convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid (A/C.3/L.1871, 5 November 1971)

General Assembly resolution 1761 (XVII) of 6 November 1962 (The policies of apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa)

General Assembly resolution 2786 (XXXVI) of 6 January 1972 (Draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid)

Nigeria, Pakistan and United Republic of Tanzania: Draft resolution relating to a separate Protocol on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, to be annexed to the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (E/CN.4/L.1189, 14 March 1972)

Nigeria and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Revised draft resolution (E/CN.4/L.1193/Rev.1, 23 March 1972)

Commission on Human Rights resolution 4 (XXVIII) of 23 March 1972 (Draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid)

Economic and Social Council resolution 1696 (LII) of 2 June 1972 (Draft convention and draft protocol on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid)

Guinea, Nigeria and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Revised draft Convention the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid (A/C.3/L.1942/Rev.1, 24 October 1972)

Report of the Third Committee to the General Assembly (A/8880, 13 November 1972)

General Assembly resolution 2922 (XXVII) of 15 November 1972 (Draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid)

Note by the Secretary-General, “Elimination of all forms of racial discrimination. Draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid” (A/8768, 14 September 1972)

Report of the Working Group of the Commission on Human Rights on the draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid (E/CN.4/L.1252, 28 March 1973)

Bulgaria, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Chile, India, Mauritius, Nigeria, Philippines, Romania, Senegal, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zaire: Draft resolution (E/CN.4/L.1259, 30 March 1973)

Commission on Human Rights resolution 16 (XXIX) of 2 April 1973 (Draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid)

Economic and Social Council resolution 1784 (LIV) of 18 May 1973 (Draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid)

Report of the Special Committee on Apartheid (A/9022, 2 October 1973)

Note by the Secretary-General, “Elimination of all forms of racial discrimination. Draft convention on the suppression and punishment of the crime of apartheid” (A/9095 and Add.1, 26 October 1973)

Report of the Third Committee to the General Assembly (A/9233, Add.1. Add.2 and Add.3, 10 November 1973)

General Assembly resolution 3068 (XXVIII) of 30 November 1973 (International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid)


The Convention entered into force on 18 July 1976. For the current participation status of the Convention, as well as information and relevant texts of related treaty actions, such as reservations, declarations, objections, denunciations and notifications, see:

The Status of Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General

Statements
Twenty-eighth session of the General Assembly, 2185th plenary meeting, 30 November 1973: Adoption of the Draft Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid
Video (9 minutes, Full version)
Play Statement by Mr. Beck, Rapporteur of the Third Committee
Introduction of the report of the Third Committee
Video (6 minutes, English)
Play Statement by the President of the General Assembly, Mr. Leopoldo Benites
The President puts to the vote the amendment of the Resolution. The amendment is adopted.
Video (2 minutes, Español)
Play Statement by President Mr. Leopoldo Benites of the General Assembly (2185th Plenary Meeting).
The President puts to the vote the draft Resolution. The draft is adopted as Resolution 3068 (XXVIII).
Video (2 minutes, Español)
Special Committee Against Apartheid, 641st meeting, United Nations Headquarters, New York, 22 June 1990: Special meeting to welcome Mr. Nelson Mandela, upon his release from prison
Video (30 minutes, Full version)
Play Statement by Mr. Nelson Mandela (South Africa), Deputy President of the African National Congress of South Africa
Video (25 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Gambari (Nigeria), Chairman of the Special Committee against Apartheid
Expressing his greatfulness to Mr. Mandela
Video (1 minute, English)
Forty-ninth session of the General Assembly, 14th plenary meeting, 3 October 1994: Address by Mr. Nelson Mandela, President of the Republic of South Africa, after his election as President
Video (35 minutes, Full version)
Play Statement by Mr. Nelson Mandela, President of the Republic of South Africa
Video (33 minutes, English)
     
Play Twenty-eighth Session of the General Assembly, Third Committee, 2006th meeting, 25 October 1973: Continuation of the discussion on the Draft Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid.
Audio (1 hour, 5 minutes, Full version)
Play Statement by Mr. Cato (Ghana)
Introduction of draft resolution A/C.3/L.2022

Audio (15 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Krishnappa (India)
Audio (9 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Golovko (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic)
Audio (8 minutes, Русский)
Play Statement by the Representative of Morocco
Audio (20 seconds, Français)
Play Statement by Mr. Shafqat (Pakistan)
Audio (1 minute, English)
Play Statement by the Representative of Madagascar
Audio (18 seconds, Français)
Play Statement by Mr. Smirnov (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Audio (16 minutes, Русский)
Play Statement by the Representative of Niger
Audio (50 seconds, Français)
Play Statement by the Representative of Kenya
Audio (20 seconds, English)
Play Statement by the Representative of Ghana
Audio (40 seconds, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Kolbasin (Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic)
Audio (7 minutes, Русский)
Play Statement by the Representative of Ghana
Audio (50 seconds, English)
Play Twenty-eighth Session of the General Assembly, Third Committee, 2008th meeting, 26 October 1973: Conclusion of the discussion on the Draft Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid.
Audio (2 hours, 44 minutes, Full version)
Play Statement by Mr. Smirnov (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Explanation of vote

Audio (7 minutes, Русский)
Play Statement by Mr. Kabinga (Zambia)
Explanation of vote

Audio (4 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Ms. Farouk (Tunisia)
Explanation of vote

Audio (4 minutes, Français)
Play The Chairman, Mr. Mahmassani (Lebanon), puts the draft Convention and the amendments thereto to the vote, on an article-by-article basis.
Audio (46 minutes, English)
Play The Chairman, Mr. Mahmassani (Lebanon), puts the whole draft Convention, as amended, to the vote. The draft Convention is adopted.
Audio (56 seconds, English)
Play The Chairman, Mr. Mahmassani (Lebanon), puts draft resolution A/C.3/L.2022, as orally revised, to the vote. The draft resolution is adopted.
Audio (54 seconds, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Sayar (Iran)
Explanation of vote

Audio (5 minutes, Français)
Play Statement by Mr. Pardos (Spain)
Explanation of vote

Audio (5 minutes, Español)
Play Statement by Mr. Wilder (Canada)
Explanation of vote

Audio (5 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Lord Gainford (the United Kingdom)
Explanation of vote

Audio (3 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Costa Couto (Brazil)
Explanation of vote

Audio (5 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Noda (Japan)
Explanation of vote

Audio (9 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Van Walsum (the Netherlands)
Explanation of vote

Audio (52 seconds, English)
Play Statement by Mrs. Diallo (Guinea)
Explanation of vote

Audio (3 minutes, Français)
Play Statement by Ms. Cao Pinna (Italy)
Explanation of vote

Audio (6 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Absolum (New Zealand)
Explanation of vote

Audio (8 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Shafqat (Pakistan)
Explanation of vote

Audio (1 minute, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Ramphul (Mauritius)
Audio (41 seconds, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Mendes Moreira (Portugal)
Explanation of vote

Audio (3 minutes, Français)
Play Statement by Mrs. Bertrand de Bromley (Honduras)
Explanation of vote

Audio (43 seconds, Español)
Play Statement by Mrs. de Barish (Costa Rica)
Explanation of vote

Audio (4 minutes, Español)
Play Statement by Mr. Cuesta (Ecuador)
Explanation of vote

Audio (5 minutes, Español)
Play Statement by Mr. Bourgoin (France)
Explanation of vote

Audio (6 minutes, Français)
Play Statement by Mr. Cadena Copete (Colombia)
Explanation of vote

Audio (6 minutes, Español)
Play Statement by Mr. Khmil (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic)
Explanation of vote

Audio (5 minutes, Русский)
Play Statement by Mr. von Kyaw (Federal Republic of Germany)
Explanation of vote

Audio (1 minute, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Papademas (Cyprus)
Explanation of vote

Audio (1 minute, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Cede (Austria)
Explanation of vote

Audio (2 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Dammert (Peru)
Explanation of vote

Audio (2 minutes, Español)
Play Statement by Ms. Mairie (Cameroon)
Explanation of vote

Audio (6 minutes, Français)
Play Twenty-eighth Session of the General Assembly, 2185th Plenary Meeting, 30 November 1973: Report of the Third Committee on the Draft Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid.
Audio (42 minutes, Full version)
Play Statement by Mr. Beck (Turkey), Rapporteur of the Third Committee
Introduction of the report of the Third Committee (A/9233/Add.1).

Audio (10 minutes, English)
Play Statement by Mr. Kabinga (Zambia)
Submission of an amendment

Audio (2 minutes, English)
Play The President of the General Assembly, Mr. Benites (Ecuador), puts the amendment to the vote. Amendment A/L.712/Rev.1 is adopted by the General Assembly.
Audio (2 minutes, Español)
Play Statement by Mr. Ferguson (the United States of America)
Explanation of vote

Audio (7 minutes, English)
Play The President of the General Assembly, Mr. Benites (Ecuador), puts the draft resolution to the vote. The draft resolution, as amended, is adopted as Resolution 3068 (XXVIII).
Audio (2 minutes, Español)
Play Statement by Mr. Verret (Haiti)
Explanation of vote

Audio (12 minutes, Français)
Play Statement by Mr. Mackenzie (United Kingdom)
Explanation of vote

Audio (3 minutes, English)
25 July 1967, Seminar on Apartheid, Racial Discrimination and Colonialism, Buchi Hall, Kitwe, Zambia: Mr. Kenneth Kaunda, President of Zambia, speaking at the opening meeting. 1 May 1969, Bloemfontein, South Africa: The segregated stands of a sports arena. 12 November 1969, Twenty-Fourth Session of the General Assembly, Meeting of the Special Political Committee, United Nations Headquarters, New York (from left to right): Mr. Kulaga (Poland); Mr. Bunche, Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs; and Mr. Abby Farah (Somalia). 13 April 1973, Conference on Southern Africa, Oslo, Norway: Mr. Djermakoye, United Nations Special Adviser on African Questions and Secretary-General's representative at the Conference, delivering the opening address.
25 July 1967
Buchi Hall, Kitwe, Zambia [Read more]
1 May 1969
Bloemfontein, South Africa [Read more]
12 November 1969
United Nations, New York [Read more]
13 April 1973
Oslo, Norway
[Read more]
13 April 1973, Conference on Southern Africa, Oslo, Norway: Mr. Edwin Ogebe Ogbu (Nigeria), Chairman of the Special Committee on Apartheid (left), and Mr. Paul Lusaka (Zambia), President of the Council for Namibia. 13 April 1973, Conference on Southern Africa, Oslo, Norway: Mr. Djermakoye, Special Adviser on African Questions and Secretary-General's representative at the Conference. 13 April 1973, Conference on Southern Africa, Oslo, Norway: Mr. Augostinho Neto (left) and Mr. C. Rocha, representatives of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). 13 April 1973, Conference on Southern Africa, Oslo, Norway: Mr. Vasco Cabral (left), Administrative Secretary of the African Party for the Liberation of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), and Mr. Joseph Turpin, member of the same party.
13 April 1973
Oslo, Norway
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13 April 1973
Oslo, Norway
[Read more]
13 April 1973
Oslo, Norway
[Read more]
13 April 1973
Oslo, Norway
[Read more]
26 October 1973, Twenty-Eighth Session of the General Assembly, Third Committee, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Voting on amendments to the text of the Draft Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. 19 May 1974, Reception held by the Nigerian Embassy for members of the Special Committee on Apartheid, Shelbourne Hotel, Dublin, Ireland: Mr. V.N. Martynenko (Ukranian Soviet Socialist Republic), member of the Committee, making a statement. 24 May 1974, Special session of the Special Committee on Apartheid in Europe, Austrian Foreign Ministry, Hofburg Redoutensaal, Vienna, Austria: Members of the Committee meeting with Mr. R. Kirchschlaeger, Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs of Austria. 1 January 1977, Title page of Volume II of the oral statements and correspondence related to the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice of 21 June 1971 confirming the illegality of the presence of South Africa in Namibia.
26 October 1973
United Nations, New York [Read more]
19 May 1974
Shelbourne Hotel, Dublin, Ireland [Read more]
24 May 1974
Hofburg Redoutensaal, Vienna, Austria [Read more]
1 January 1977
Title page of Volume II of the oral statements and correspondence related to the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice [Read more]
10 June 1977, Second International Conference of World Trade Unions against Apartheid, Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland: Mr. A. Farah, Assistant Secretary-General for Special Political Questions, addressing the Conference on behalf of Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim. 1978, Reproduction of the Official emblem for the Anti-Apartheid Year. 21 March 1978, Special meeting marking the start of the International Anti-Apartheid Year, United Nations Office in Geneva, Switzerland: Mr. Cottafavi, Director-General of the United Nations Office at Geneva, reading a message from Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim. 11 October 1978, Thirty-Third Session of the General Assembly, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim presenting awards for distinguished service against apartheid.
10 June 1977
Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland [Read more]
1978
Reproduction of the Official emblem for the Anti-Apartheid Year. [Read more]
21 March 1978
United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland [Read more]
11 October 1978
United Nations, New York [[Read more]
11 January 1982, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar (left) meeting with Mr. Alhaji Yusuf Maitama-Sule (Nigeria), Chairman of the Special Committee against Apartheid. 20 January 1983, Ad Hoc Committee on the Drafting of an International Convention against Apartheid in Sports, United Nations, New York. 21 March 1983, Press Conference by the Chairman of the Special Committee Against Apartheid, United Nations Headquarters, New York (from left to right): Mr. Harleston, President of the City College of the City University of New York; Mr. Maitama-Sule (Nigeria), Chairman of the Special Committee Against Apartheid; and Mr. Gbeho (Ghana), Vice-Chairman of the Special Committee. 25 March 1983, Office of the Secretary-General, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Mr. Antonio Saura, President of the Paris-based Committee of Artists Against Apartheid (second from right) and Ambassador Alhaji Yusuf Maitama-Sule (Nigeria) (right), presenting anti-apartheid posters to Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar (second from left), accompanied by Ms. Chantal Bonnet (left), interpreter.
11 January 1982
United Nations, New York [Read more]
20 January 1983
United Nations, New York [Read more]
21 March 1983
United Nations, New York [Read more]
25 March 1983
United Nations, New York [Read more]
28 October 1985, Press conference by Bishop Desmond Tutu, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Bishop Desmond Tutu (South Africa) addressing the correspondants. 30 October 1985, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Mr. Serge Elie Charles (Haiti), Vice-Chairman of the Special Committee against Apartheid, presenting a check for Mrs. Winnie Mandela, whose house was set on fire and destroyed earlier on August, to Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar (right). 22 June 1990, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Mr. Nelson Mandela (centre), Deputy President of the African National Congress, arriving at the United Nations to address the Special Committee Against Apartheid in the General Assembly. 22 June 1990, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Mr. Nelson Mandela, Deputy President of the African National Congress of South Africa, addressing the Special Committee Against Apartheid in the General Assembly Hall.
28 October 1985
United Nations, New York [Read more]
30 October 1985
United Nations, New York [Read more]
22 June 1990
United Nations, New York [Read more]
22 June 1990
United Nations, New York [Read more]
24 September 1993, Press conference by President Nelson Mandela, United Nations Headquarters, New York: Mr. Nelson Mandela (centre), President of the African National Congress of South Africa (ANC), addressing the correspondants; David Dinkins (left), Mayor of the City of New York; and Mr. Gambari (right), Chairman of the Special Committee against Apartheid. 10 May 1994, Pretoria, South Africa: The newly-elected President Nelson Mandela, addressing the crowd from a balcony of the Townhall.    
24 September 1993
United Nations, New York [Read more]
10 May 1994
Pretoria, South Africa [Read more]