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Prof. David Freestone

Mr. David Freestone
Professor of Comparative Law
and Jurisprudence
The George Washington University Law School
Former Senior Adviser
Office of the General Counsel
World Bank

Biography Biography in PDF

Law of the Sea
United Nations Convention on
the Law of the Sea
25 Years of the Law of the Sea Convention –
Has it Been a Success?
In this lecture David Freestone looks back at developments in the twenty-five years since the Law of the Sea Convention was finalized in 1982, particularly in relation to environmental and natural resources issues. He discusses the significance of the 1992 Rio Conference on Environment and Development and the two Implementing Agreements of 1994 and 1995. He then considers new developments in the marine agenda and assesses some of the strengths and weaknesses of the 1982 regime.

Video  (24 minutes)
Law of the Sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
25 Years of the Law of the Sea Convention – Has it Been a Success?
International Instruments
1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 10 December 1982, 1833 UNTS 396.
1992 Agenda 21, Annex II to the Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 3 to 14 June 1992, UN Doc A/CONF.151/26.
1993 Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas, Rome, 24 November 1993, (1994) 33 ILM 968; (1995) 10 IJMCL 417.
1994 Instrument for the Establishment of the Restructured Global Environment Facility, 16 March 1994 (1994) 33 ILM 1273.
1994 Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December, 1982, 28 July 1994, (1994) 33 ILM 1309.
1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, New York, 4 August 1995 (entered into force 11 December 2001) 2167 UNTS 3.
1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, Rome, 31 October 1995, text at (1995) 11 International Organizations and the Law of the Sea Documentary Yearbook 700.
2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, 2 November 2001, (2002) 41 ILM 40.
2004 International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 13 February 2004.

Recommended Reading
David Freestone, Richard Barnes and David Ong, (eds.) The Law of the Sea: Progress and Prospects, Oxford University Press, July 2006, xxxviii + 457 pp.
David Freestone and Kristina Gjerde (eds.), Deep Sea Fisheries: Unfinished Agendas (IJMCL Special Issue), 2004, Martinus Nijhoff, xi + 156pp.
David Freestone, William Edeson et Elly Gudmundsdottir, Légiférer pour une gestion durable des pêcheries: Guide de l’Accord de Conformité de la FAO de 1993 et de l'Accord de l’ONU de 1995 sur les Stocks Chevauchants. World Bank, Washington D.C., 2004, 161 pp. (Collection Droit, Justice et Développement).
David Freestone, William Edeson and Elly Gudmundsdottir, Legislating for Sustainable Fisheries: A Guide to Implementing the 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement and the 1995 Fish Stocks Agreement World Bank, Washington D.C., 2001, 152 pp. (Law, Justice and Development Series). Translated into French 2004 (above).
David Freestone and Gerard Mangone (eds.) The Law of the Sea Convention: Unfinished Agendas and Future Challenges, 1995, (IJMCL Special Issue), Kluwer Law International, xii and 204pp.
Articles and Chapters
David Freestone, “A Decade of the Law of the Sea Convention: Is it a Success?” (2007) 39 George Washington University International Law Review, (Issue 3: Special Issue on the Symposium in Remembrance of Professor Louis Sohn) pp. 499-542.
David Freestone, “Editorial: Twenty-Five Years of the Law of the Sea Convention, 1982-2007.” (2007) 22 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, pp. 1-4.
David Freestone and Salman M.A. Salman, “Ocean and Freshwater Resources.” Chapter 15 in Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law (Daniel Bodansky, Jutta Brunee and Ellen Hey, eds.) Oxford, January 2007, pp. 337-361.
David Freestone, “The Role of the World Bank and the Global Environment Facility in the Implementation of the Regime of the Law of the Sea Convention” in The Law of the Sea: Progress and Prospects (David Freestone, Richard Barnes and David Ong, eds.) Oxford, June 2006, pp. 308-326.
David Freestone, “The Establishment, Role and Evolution of the Global Environment Facility: Operationalising Common but Differentiated Responsibility?” Liber Amicorum for Thomas A. Mensah: Law of the Sea, Protection of the Marine Environment and Settlement of Disputes (Ndlaye and Wolfrum, eds.) Martinus Nijhoff, 2007, pp. 1077-1107.
David Freestone and Alex G. Oude Elferink, “Flexibility and Innovation in the Law of the Sea: Will the LOS Convention amendment procedures ever be used?" in Stability and Change in the Law of the Sea: The Role of the LOS Convention (Alex G. Oude Elferink, Ed.) Martinus Nijhoff, 2005, pp 163-216.