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Judge Christopher Greenwood

Judge Christopher Greenwood
International Court of Justice

Biography Biography in PDF

Law of Armed Conflict

Introduction to International Humanitarian Law
Is it possible to preserve humanity in warfare? For centuries international law has attempted to do so. International humanitarian law (or the law of war as it is sometimes known) addresses such issues as the protection of the wounded, medical personnel, civilians and prisoners of war, as well as the prohibition of unnecessarily cruel or indiscriminate weaponry. In this lecture, Judge Christopher Greenwood, offers a brief introduction to humanitarian law and its place in the international legal system.

Video | Audio
(41 minutes)

Law of Armed Conflict
Introduction to International Humanitarian Law
A. Legal Instruments
United States of America, Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, General Order No. 100 (1863) (‘The Lieber Code’).

Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. (Text of the Conventions available on the website of Yale Law School’s Avalon Project)

Geneva Convention for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded and sick in armed forces in the field, 12 August 1949 relative to the Protection of Civilians in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, p. 31.

Geneva Convention for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea, Geneva, 12 August 1949, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, p. 85.

Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Prisoners of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, p. 135.

Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, 12 August 1949, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, p. 287.

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts (Protocol I), Geneva, 7 December 1978, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1125, p. 3.

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts (Protocol II), Geneva 7 December 1978, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1125, p. 609.

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, Geneva, 3 September 1992, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1974, p. 317.
(internal link)

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Rome, 17 July 1998, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 2187, p. 3.

B. Jurisprudence
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Prosecutor v. Tadic, ICTY Appeals Chamber, Judgment of 15 July 1999, No. IT-94-1-A.

International Court of Justice, Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996, I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 226.

International Court of Justice, Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda), Judgment of 19 December 2005, I.C.J. Reports 2005, p. 168.

C. Doctrine
G. Best, Humanity in Warfare: The Modern International Law of Armed Conflicts, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1980.